By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
Rollo (not the candy) was a leader of a band of Vikings who invaded northern France and settled there in 918 A.D. He was called Rollo the Walker, because he was said to have been too big to ride a horse (either too tall or too fat—it isn’t clear in the sagas). The area he settled, or took over, became the land of the Northmen which over time became the duchy of Normandy. Rollo is significant because he was the three times grandfather of William of Normandy who is known throughout history as William the Conqueror (aka, William the Bastard).
William’s father died when he was eight, and he instantly became the heir. But he had to fight for his birthright since he was considered by most everyone as a bastard. Luckily for William, he was very good at fighting and he won his place as the Duke of Normandy. The English king, Edward the Confessor, had promised William the throne of England upon his death. Perhaps he forgot this fact (or just ignored it) because he also promised the throne to Harold Godwinson (Harold the Saxon) as well. Thus a contest for the throne of England was set. Harold was proclaimed king, and William decided to defend his right to the throne.
By a twist of fate, a Norwegian king, Harald Hardrada (the Ruthless) also decided to take England by force. He wasn’t promised the throne, though; his connection came from Harold Godwinson’s troublesome brother, Tostig (gasp! No nickname?). He brought 300 ships and 11,000 Vikings to take the English throne. They attacked at the north of England and managed to take the city of York. Harold knew that William was going to attack as well but that would be at a different part of England, so what was Harold to do? He decided to defend England against Harald Hardrada and his Vikings even knowing that William was close to sailing to attack from a different coast. It turned out that William was delayed in his conquest of England because he was waiting for good winds to take him across the English Channel. If the winds had turned good earlier, who know what would have happened (now that would be a good alternate history idea).
Harold was successful in defeating the Viking forces at Stamford Bridge, but at great cost. And since the Vikings had attacked England at the north end of the country, the English under Harold Godwinson had to force-march ten miles a day for three weeks to get to the south of England and meet William. They were mostly walking—most of the soldiers didn’t have horses, and given the distance, they made good time. But they were exhausted when they got there, and they had to fight the next day. No day of rest for them. William and his Norman forces won the day; Harold was killed with an arrow through the eye; and history was made. This was effectively the end of the English kings, and the beginning of Norman/French rule. William continued to fight to consolidate his rule of England. He fought other battles in 1068 against Harold Godwinson’s heirs and in 1069 the Danes attacked York, aided by revolting (what they did, not how they looked) English nobles. He scorched the earth so badly after he won it was said that there was famine in the area for nine years.
And why was William conquering England so important?
- The Normans brought French language to England. The rulers and the courts spoke French, and it was the official language of England for centuries. In time it trickled down through the whole country and became closer to the language we know today. The reason we can read Chaucer and other Middle English works is that they are not in Anglo-Saxon.
- Many believe that the Normans won because they used stirrups when they rode to battle. Stirrups hadn’t made it to the island of Britain yet and the Normans were using armored cavalry, 3000 strong! When throwing spears and slashing from horseback, it is far easier to stay in the saddle with stirrups!
- William ordered that a national census be done in 1086; the first census was called the Domesday Book. He wanted to see what he had conquered. It is still extant and can be looked at in the National Archives. It is also available online and as a book.
- Some sources believe that the legend of Robin Hood was actually born during the time of the Norman invasion under William, not under his 4th great grandson John.
- The Norman Invasion brought castles to England. France invented the castle as a way to protect property and dominate the land, and the Normans built many stout and menacing castles in England to control England. Many are still standing today.
- Chivalry came to Great Britain with the Normans. Imagine life without the romance of knights and their ladies; King Arthur would not have been such a great influence without this way of acting and living.
- William banned the English slave trade. He even sometimes freed slaves. Some historians believe that 15% to 20% of the population was enslaved before the Invasion. True, they brought in the feudal system with serfs, who were treated sometimes like slaves. But they couldn’t be sold, except when the land was sold or traded hands.
- William erected an abbey at the spot where Harold died, in remembrance and in penance. Ruins of the abbey are still there, as is a town called Battle. Normans erected other churches, cathedrals as well as castles.
- The Battle of Hastings was recreated on a 230 feet long (and 20 inches wide) tapestry by the women of Bayeux, France (either nuns and/or women in William’s family). It is the longest tapestry in existence. It is known as the Bayeux Tapestry and is quite famous for the battle scenes, which are quite graphic. If it was created by nuns, they knew battle…
- Normans brought surnames to England as well. Anglo-Saxons, similar to the Vikings, had a descriptive surname, like Luke the Fat or Marcus the butcher.
- And finally, for the gross factor: William died in his French capital, Rouen. He confessed his sins and distributed his treasure to the poor and to some of the churches in his realms. It is believed that William was injured by a fall or perhaps from the pommel of his saddle (he was very heavy later in life). In any case, it was an internal injury and swelled badly. The priests had a hard time getting him into his stone sarcophagus, which was a little too short and not big enough for him, and had to push hard. His wounds, having festered, burst from the corpse; it was a very quick burial after that… (ewwww…)
- Still, all kings (and queens) in England after William were descended through him. Some believe over 25% of the English population can trace their genealogy back through him. And may Americans can also count him as an ancestor. Justin Timberlake and Barack Obama are very distant cousins, both having lines back to William!
Further Reading: Read the rest of this entry
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
Did you grown up singing along with the cast recording of Broadway musicals? If you are of a certain age, perhaps you did. My mother had many of them, and I enjoyed singing along, whenever I knew the words. Home was so very far away from New York in those days, so the cast albums (I’m talking old 78s and 33 1/3s) were the closest you could get to the plays themselves. This was before the internet, when many areas of the country only got three television channels. This was before cable. Yes, I am old. But I always remember how much fun I had listening to the musicals. And I know I am not alone.
So what musicals have been the most popular through the years, popular enough to keep bringing them back, that is?
1. Porgy and Bess (music by George Gershwin, book and lyrics by Ira Gershwin , based on the book by Dubose Heyward)**
Porgy and Bess premiered in 1935 on Broadway, and has been brought back to Broadway seven times! Part of the popularity is the story and part, possibly the larger part, is the music by George and Ira Gershwin. And it is the most revived musical on Broadway.
2. The Threepenny Opera (music by Kurt Weil, book and lyrics by Bertolt Brecht)
The Threepenny Opera premiered in 1933; it has been revived six times. This play was adapted from the book The Beggar’s Opera written in 1728. This musical may qualify as being from the oldest extant source!
3. Show Boat (music by Jerome Kern, book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II)
Before Hammerstein teamed up with Richard Rodgers he was famous in his own right. He just became more so in the famous partnership. This musical has also been revived six times. “Ol’ Man River” and “Can’t Help Lovin’ Dat Man” are always show stoppers.
4. Peter Pan (music by Mark Charlap and Jule Stine; book and lyrics by Carolyn Leigh)
Peter Pan is the fourth most restaged musical. I’m sure you thought it would be on the list somewhere! It’s a perennial favorite for all ages, and those of us old enough will remember that Mary Martin starred as Peter in the first show in 1954. She was the mother of Larry Hagman who became a star in I Dream of Jeannie, and became a megastar in Dallas.
5. Guys and Dolls (music and lyrics by Frank Loesser and book by Abe Burrows)
This musical premiered in 1950. Some from younger generations may be surprised that Marlon Brando starred in the film adaptation, singing and dancing. Nathan Lane starred in the 1992 revival. I’m sure that was a good one.
6. Fiddler on the Roof (music by Jerry Bock, lyrics by Sheldon Harnick and book by Joseph Stein)
Next is one you probably thought should have been higher up on the list. The book was based on the stories of Sholom Aleichem, telling the story of the Jews living in the Soviet Union and how they lived there. It first premiered in 1964 and was an immediate hit. The movie was wonderful, too.
7. Carousel (music by Richard Rodgers, and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II)
Now we come to the famous pairing of Rodgers and Hammerstein. This was the second play in their partnership. Oklahoma was the first, and it changed the way musicals were written and performed. Carousel only cemented their fame, and they were even nominated for a Tony award.
8. West Side Story (music by Leonard Bernstein, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Arthur Laurents)
West Side Story is the eighth most popular revival. I’m surprised it’s not higher on the list. But perhaps because it was based on one of Shakespeare’s most famous plays was what made it so popular (aka Romeo and Juliet). You can’t go wrong with Shakespeare… It premiered in 1957, and was so popular it came back to Broadway three years later.
9. Pal Joey (music by Richard Rodgers; book and lyrics by Lorenz Hart, based on the book by John O’Hara)
The character and stories from this musical were based on short stories by John O’Hara that appeared in the New Yorker; he later published these stories as a novel. The play received mixed reviews from the critics, but ran for ten months, so it was popular. Not smash hits like with Rodgers and Hammerstein…
10. Oklahoma (music by Richard Rodgers, and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II)
Speaking of Rodgers and Hammerstein, Oklahoma is the next most revised musical. This one was the first by the duo. This musical broke the mold. The singing was part of the dialogue, not just song and dance numbers interspersed in between dialogue.
Some people in the business aren’t sure all of the old favorites should be revived. Some of the shows continue stereotypes, while others deal with abuse or misogyny. And what about the revivals taking away room for new musicals to come to town; others have concerns about this possibility too.
In a November New York times article, Georgia Stitt, a composer, lyricist and musician, posted this on social media last fall as the 2017 season was being announced:
“With respect to the creatives who will be employed by these projects, I will say I’m concerned about a Broadway season that includes PRETTY WOMAN, CAROUSEL and MY FAIR LADY all at the same time. In 2017 is the correct message really “women are there to be rescued? It’s frustrating that the material people seem to want to throw their energy into is old properties where women have no agency, and then there is the real scarcity of women on the creative teams.”
–Georgia Stitt (@georgiastitt) November 22, 2017
Creative teams have sought to rework problematic classic musicals, either by changing wording (only possible with permission from the writers’ representatives), or by rethinking staging.
Critiques of My Fair Lady have focused not only on the show’s final exchange, but on the Pygmalion narrative itself. “Oh gosh, it is very, very sexist,” Julie Andrews, who originated the role of Eliza on Broadway in 1956, told an interviewer last year. “Young women in particular will and should find it hard.”
Pretty Woman, which will be staged for the fall 2018 season, faces different challenges, as a new musical with no pre-existing book or score. It will have a production in Chicago this spring and is then scheduled to open on Broadway in August.
Some artists think that there are a few musicals that need to be revived. What about Funny Girl, 1776, Titanic or A Funny thing Happened on the Way to the Forum? Grand Hotel, anyone??
A few final words about musicals: This year Love Never Dies will be shown in North America for the first time. The sequel is set in New York, ten years after the ending of the Phantom of the Opera ends. It started in Detroit and now is coming to TPAC. And yes the music and lyrics are by Andrew Lloyd Webber.
** So what exactly do these musical terms mean? The music itself, often called the score, is often written by a different person than the person who writes the lyrics, (a.k.a. the words in the songs). Think of Rodgers and Hammerstein. Then think of Andrew Lloyd Webber or Stephen Sondheim. Both of these men often wrote the words and music for their productions. The book is the words, the actual story of the musical, sometimes based on a book, as in Phantom of the Opera.
- The 23 Most-Revived Musicals in Broadway History Since 1927
- 10 Musicals Due for a Broadway Revival
- The Problem With Broadway Revivals: They Revive Gender Stereotypes, Too
- Do Revivals Inhibit New Broadway Musicals?
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
In case you don’t know, Cinco de Mayo means the Fifth of May in Spanish.
So sit down with a margarita, put on some mariachi music and read about this almost more American than Mexican holiday. (May 5 is often confused with the Mexican day of independence. The nation celebrates its Independence Day on September 16. On this date in 1810, Mexico won her independence from Spain.)
Cinco de Mayo does commemorate an historic event in the city of Puebla de Los Angeles in Mexico. President Benito Juarez sent a rag tag army of volunteers to meet the French army there. General Zaragoza led this army against the much-better supplied French army. The 4,000 man Mexican army defeated the 8,000 man French army on May 5, 1862. The French army was considered the best in the world at that time and defeating the French was a huge morale booster, and gave the beleaguered country a sense of unity and patriotism. The Mexicans lost 100 men in the battle, the French 500.
France returned next year with a much bigger army (30,000 soldiers) and a chip on its shoulder. This time France defeated Mexico, and ruled the country for three years. How did this all come about? When Juarez became president in 1861, Mexico was broke. They were still recovering from the Mexican-American war in the 1840s, when a defeated Mexico allowed the United States to annex Texas. The country had borrowed money from Spain, Britain and France to keep the country going, and was recovering from the defeat. It couldn’t afford to pay back the loans.
Spain and Britain negotiated with Mexico and settled the matter. France was in no mood to settle; they wanted more territory and decided to invade Mexico at the port city of Veracruz. France only ruled Mexico for three years, installing Maximillian I as king. The United States was able to help Mexico after the Civil War ended. With additional funds and arms, plus with the pressure on France from Prussia, France withdrew to protect closer borders. In June, 1867, President Benito Juarez became president again, and started pulling Mexico back together.
Interesting Facts about Cinco de Mayo:
- Napoleon III, the emperor of France, had the idea to take over Mexico, and then send arms and men to help the Confederate Army. Not that he was pro-Southern, he just wanted the nation to continue to be divided and weak. Since this invasion, no foreign country has ever invaded any nation in the Americas.
- Some historians believe that if it were not for the Mexican victory during the Battle of Puebla, the Confederates would have won the Civil War and changed the fate of the United States forever.
- Cinco de Mayo is not a federal holiday in Mexico, and is not really celebrated outside of Puebla and a few other cities. In the United States, however, it is a huge holiday.
In and around Puebla, “Cinco de Mayo” is known as El Día de la Batalla de Puebla (the Day of Puebla Battle). And they celebrate with re-enactments and parades more than with tequila, margaritas and such.
- May 5th was made more popular under Franklin Roosevelt, who established the “Good Neighbors policy” in the 1930s.
- Americans eat nearly 81 million pounds of avocadoes on Cinco de Mayo every year, according to the California Avocado Commission.
- Many cities in the United States celebrate Cinco de Mayo with weekend-long festivals, including Denver, Chicago, Portland and San Diego.
- Los Angeles wins with the largest party (in the world!). It is called Fiesta Broadway. Many other countries enjoy this celebration as well. Even Vancouver, Canada has a big celebration, with a skydiving mariachi band!
- Chandler, Arizona has a Chihuahua race on May 5!
- Because we like to celebrate and drink tequila, the United States drinks more of this potent liquor than Mexico, where most tequila is made!
- Enchiladas and tamales make up more the traditional dishes and as they take a bit of time to create and cook, it becomes a time for family togetherness.
We all know about Groundhog Day on February 2, when a fuzzy animal is brought forth to predict the weather. How could we miss that huge celebration at Punxsutawney, when Phil, the groundhog (the official term is woodchuck –remember the tongue twister?), is brought out of his den and the crowd goes wild. If he sees his shadow, then winter will end sooner than later, but if he doesn’t see his shadow, that means 6 more weeks of winter. Of course, this weather forecast has never been that accurate…
And of course, many people fondly remember watching the movie Groundhog Day, starring Bill Murray and Andie McDowell. It has become a “contemporary classic.” In case you don’t remember, Phil (Bill Murray) gets stuck in a time loop on Groundhog Day, and only after he learns from his mistakes is he able to get back on track. In 2006, it was even added to the United States National Film Registry for being a culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant film.
So where does Candlemas fit in, you may ask?? This holy day is celebrated by Christians on February 2 to commemorate both the presentation of Jesus at the Temple and Jesus’ first entry into the Temple. Since Jesus is considered a “light-bringer,” the custom was to bless candles on this day as well, which is where we get the term Candlemas from. In pagan times, this day was also known as Imbolc (pronounced i-Molk), a festival marking the first day of Spring, which usually fell on February 2. Evidently spring came early in the Gaelic lands, and coincidentally (meaning it was probably a direct influence), this holy day was also used to predict the coming weather.
These poems, found in English and German, show how on Candlemas the weather could be forecast.
If Candle-mas Day is bright and clear,
There’ll be two winters in the year.
If Candle mas be fair and bright,
Winter has another flight.
If Candlemas brings clouds and rain,
Winter will not come again.
The German immigrants also brought with them the tradition of a hedgehog telling the spring forecast, but with no hedgehogs to be found, groundhogs were the closest animal they could find in the new world. And Pennsylvania has had many Germans settlers.
And now you know how Groundhog Day and Candlemas both have a place in American culture.
An aside: The name Punxsutawney comes from the Lenape name for the location “ponksad-uteney” which means “the town of the sandflies.” The name woodchuck comes from the Indian legend of “Wojak, the groundhog” considered by them to be their underground ancestor.
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
Fall comes around each year, and the air becomes chilled and the leaves change colors, and it’s time to remember November as Native American Heritage Month. We remember how Squanto, a member of the Pawtuxet tribe, assisted the settlers of Plymouth and how Pocahontas and her father, from the Algonquin tribe, assisted in helping the settlers in Jamestown. Both were kindnesses of friendship and food that unfortunately later came back to bite them.
Since the history of Native Americans is so broad and diverse, during this month of holiday feasting and heritage, we’ve decided to focus on a brief survey of Native American food and cuisine. Today, few of the Native American tribes eat the same diets that their ancestors ate, but much of the indigenous foods are now incorporated into the cuisines of almost the entire world.
Starting in the northeast, where contact first began with the English, we’ll work our way across the nation. While there were some common staples and practices, such as corn being a very important dietary staple across most of the nation, the first thing we should realize is that all tribes did not eat the same things or cook the same way. (Keep in mind though that I am a Caucasian woman, and may get some things wrong.)
The Northeastern tribes staple foods were corn, beans and squash. These foods were often called the “three sisters” because they were planted together: the beans grew up the tall stalks of the maize, while the squash spread out at the base of the corn and beans which provided protection and support for the roots. They also enjoyed the bounty of wildlife, including deer and turkey, along with other birds.
The Southern tribes were serious farmers, using irrigation and crop rotations. They ate corn, cornmeal and also hominy— interestingly, you can make hominy by adding ashes to the corn, which helps the corn cook faster, and brings out more nutrients. And of course, with hominy you can make grits. Other foods that we are still eating today were introduced to us by the tribes in the Southeast: potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, squash and beans. Their dies was also supplements by wild berries and grapes as well as peppers and sassafras; making teas and ginger like drinks. They were also manily small game hunters (rabbits and turkeys).
On the Great Plains midwestern Native American tribes were mainly hunters and gatherers. These tribes were big game hunters for bison and caribou, and many tribes would work together to capture these large animals. There was limited farming, and many tribes could only grow a couple of crops so they relied on a trade system.
In the Southwest deserts, animals were more scarce. For meat, they often ate wild turkey, but they mainly relied on their farming. Of course, one of the most important foods they grew was maize (corn), they even had 24 different types. They also grew beans, squash, melons, pumpkins and fruit.
On the Pacific Coast, Native Americans used salmon and other fish, seafood, mushrooms, berries, and meats such as deer, duck, and rabbit. These tribes were mostly hunter-gatherers. Since the weather as mostly good all year round, they could rely year-round on the abundant foods in the region. In some areas, acorns were ground into flour. These groups, along with almost all tribes, prepared dried or salted meat to last through the winter season.
Most of the foods we eat during the holidays came from Native Americans. In 1621, the first Thanksgiving recorded that the feast included deer, water fowl, turkeys, shellfish, eels, squash, corn, and beans, and according to one legend, a native American named Quadequina brought a bowl of popcorn. The traditional Thanksgiving and Christmas foods, including turkey, cranberry sauce, pumpkin pie, baked beans, and mashed potatoes were adopted by us white people.
Grits, cornmeal mush, cornbread, succotash, and fried green tomatoes are all uniquely southern foods that we learned about from Native Americans. Some people in the South still hunt raccoons, opossums, and squirrels, as did the Native Americans; venison is still eaten throughout North America. And what would life be like maple syrup. Southwestern and Mexican foods were also heavily influenced by Native Americans. The food sharing was so important that there is a term, the Columbian Exchange, which explains the sharing of Native American foods with the while settlers, as well as around the world. They, on the other hand, got many of our diseases as well as some of our foods and weapons.
Over 4 million people have tried Native American food for the first time. It’s entertaining and you can also see what a few dishes look like. The consensus is that the food is good, and people want more.
And now for some recipes, because we can’t talk about native American foods without showing some basic recipes… Read the rest of this entry
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
Interested in branching out in the romance genre? Tired of regular historical romances and looking for something new? Consider paranormal romance (often confused with urban fantasy, which is its own subgenre). These novels are romances, but they include some element of the paranormal or supernatural, which is why they are perfect for October. Many characters have ESP, magic or other special abilities and oftentimes the hero (or heroine) is not human but a werewolf, a vampire, a faerie (The Fae), a god, a demon, an angel or anything else writers can think of, in disguise.
Paranormal romance has its roots in Gothic fiction, which involved the supernatural (or the promise of the supernatural) and it often included the discovery of mysterious elements of antiquity. Generally there was also a large rambling house, with glimpses of lurking unknown figures with a threatening mystery and a brooding hero. Think of Jane Eyre, with the creepy old house and strange things happening in the attic, or even Dracula and Frankenstein. Thank goodness this novel has morphed into the paranormal romance.
Most sources agree that the first big hit in the paranormal romance genre was probably Diana Gabaldon’s Outlander, which won the 1991 RWA (Romance Writers Association) Best Romance award for a new “Futuristic/Fantasy/Paranormal” category. Jude Deveraux made it to the best seller list with A Knight in Shining Armor in 1989, telling a similar tale of time-crossed lovers. It is one of the fastest growing trends in the romance genre.
According to Romance Literature Statistics, in 2010 romance fiction generated just over a billion in sales, estimated to go up to $1.368 in 2011, and it has only increased since 2011!! (The Romance Market share compared to other genres – $759 million for Inspirational fiction; $682 million for mystery novels and over $500 million for the parent genre, science fiction and fantasy.) Who knew!
So romance fiction is no small thing anymore, but a force to be reckoned with!
So why is it so popular? Jordan Hawk, an author and blogger gives several reasons why this genre is still going strong:
- These books take us away from our every-day lives. If we have stress in our lives, pets and children who depend upon us, it’s nice to get away for a while.
- It exercises our imaginations. These novels are like living daydreams, where anything can happen and magical creatures exist. You could meet a Fae, a vampire, a wizard and/or help defeat evil, plus fall in love with the hero, just like the heroine.
- Some of the authors write books that can be considered fantasy adventure stories for women. If the female lead is a take-charge kind of girl we can all fantasize about living a life like that. There’s a reason people sometime call romance “mind candy”.
- You can read about people meeting their soulmate, and fantasize about this in your own life. Imagine there is someone out there just for you and he is looking for you, too. Some authors write racy stories and some write gentle romance novels, so you can pick what suits you best.
One thing: these books are in a series and are meant to be read in order. Don’t pick up the third or fourth book and expect to know what’s happening. You should try to read in series order, as they are meant to be read–not in random order. (We have Interlibrary Loan here at our library which will allow you get the books you’re missing in a series so you can read them in order.)
Paranormal fiction can be fun and humorous, or sexy and dark. There is something for everyone in this genre! Here are a few authors in each of the above categories.
Humorous and Light Paranormal Authors:
- Mary Janice Davidson
- Charlaine Harris
- Katie McAlister
- Molly Harper
- Shanna Swendson
- Michele Bardsley
- Mimi Jean Pamphiloff
- Lydia Dare
- Janet Chapman
- Nora Roberts
- Tracy Madison
- Mary Balogh
- Barbara Bretton
- Victoria Laurie
Sexy Paranormal Authors:
- Keri Arthur
- Christine Feehan
- Nalini Singh
- Kresley Cole
- Stephanie Rowe
- J R Ward
- Victoria Dannan
- Karen Marie Moning
- P C Cast
- Sherilynn Kenyon
- Lyndsay Sands
- Jeaniene Frost
- Charlene Hartnady
- https://www.stopyourekillingme.com/GenreCats/Paranormal.html huge a-z list
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
Attention, all business people and job seekers! We have a great database targeted just for you (and everyone else, too.)
Let me tell you about ReferenceUSA. This database offers business and consumer research information on millions of businesses in the United States, as well as consumer information. Created by Infogroup, this reference and research tool is the leading source for business and residential data. This resource can be used for such purposes as searching for jobs, finding doctors, creating business/marketing plans for a small business, conducting competitive analyses and locating specific people.
To access our database, click on this link, which will take you to the Databases by Title page: http://lib.williamson-tn.org/reference/refelect_alphalist.html#r
You can access this database at home, but you must have a library card in good standing. What does that mean? No fines over $3.00 and the card must be current. Every two years all cards need to be updated—even staff cards. ( So when you see the message that your card has expired, it hasn’t really. Just needs to be updated.) There is also an app for ReferenceUSA; you can download it for free from the App Store.
You can search for jobs, by location, and also by industry, using NAICS, SIC codes or by subject. You can research companies worldwide, find out executive contacts, track down addresses and phone numbers for businesses, and using a different section, find someone in a phone book nationwide. You can locate out-of-town companies and find all the information you need before your interview. You can profile a neighborhood, city or state, which is so very helpful if you are starting a new business or advertising for your business. Our database module containing detailed information on more than 14 million U.S. businesses and employers, millions of US residents, health care providers, Canadian businesses and more!
- Small-business owners and entrepreneurs can conduct market research, search for similar businesses in the area, find information on competitors, search for businesses to buy and much more.
- Job seekers can access information on more than 24 million U.S. businesses, including 200,000 human resource contact names, to assist with their job search — company descriptions and website links to job postings are also provided.
- New homeowners or those looking to purchase a home can research neighborhoods, including home values and median income of residents in the area, as well as locate nearby schools, churches, doctors, childcare facilities and more.
- Students can access articles for research on businesses, including data summaries to profile a neighborhood, city or state by type of business, size of business or household median income, spending habits and growth of a business, as well as finding businesses of similar size and scope to compare to.
You can search for a single business, and find the information you need about that business. Or, using the Advanced Search, you can search by company type using SIC Codes or NAICS codes to find what businesses are in a certain area. This would be of great assistance if you wanted to send flyers or notices to these businesses. You can create a list of businesses that you would like to send a resume to if you are job searching with our database of 24 million businesses. You can find out about the area you just move into with our Consumers/Lifestyles module. All you need is a library card! And you can access this database at home as well.
All of this information is included with each and every search—over 24 million businesses; not all information is available for every business, though.
- Company name
- Phone number
- Complete address
- Key executive name
- SIC Codes
- Employee size
- Sales volume
- Business expenditures
- Geo-codes for mapping
- Fax and toll-free numbers
- Website addresses
- Franchise and brand information
- Headline news
- Judgments and bankruptcies
- Email addresses
- Number of computers
- Work-at-home businesses
- Business credit rating scores
Here are some sample research questions as examples:
- I’m thinking of opening a bakery. Can I find out how many bakeries are in my area already?
- Using the Advanced Search option in the U.S. Businesses database, choose the Business Type and click in the Business Type box. This will give you a way to search for Bakeries – Wholesale or Bakeries – Retail. Then click on the gray SEARCH button. To add another category, try Geography. You can choose a city, county or metropolitan statistical area. This will decrease your number of hits, and make it more manageable. Since our library is in Franklin, TN, we put in Franklin, TN for the Geography selector. Although the information changes from time to time, we got sixteen hits. Click on any one of these businesses and you will see more information included in the list above. You can find job listings, business profile, photos, maps and directions, demographics, management, stock data, expenditures, history, nearby businesses and competitor’s reports. And the best part is this list of 16 hits or 225 hits can be downloaded to Excel.
If you are job searching, ReferenceUSA will help you out too. The database gives you access to more than 22 million companies and employers all day and all night, right from your home computer. The database now has Indeed.com job listings included in each record. ReferenceUSA also helps you research the company you are interested in working for. That’s always helpful when you get the dreaded question “What do you know about our company?” Once you have a job interview, you can search for that company using the Quick Search and get current news and click though the website.
Remember, this is a free database you can access in the library, at home or from the app FOR FREE! We subscribe to it so you don’t have to!
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
On July 14, 1881, Billy the Kid was killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett. Those are the facts, nothing but the facts. Oh, but the legends on these two and how they are linked forever in history makes this killing as important as the OK Corral in the annals of history.
So, who exactly was Billy the Kid? History gives him several names: probably born as Henry McCarty, and took the aliases Henry Antrim and William H. Bonney. Information is sketchy about his early years: it is known that he was born in New York City in to a poor Irish family. Not much is known about his early years but he ended up in New Mexico Territory in 1873. Again, not much is known about him at this time, but 4 years later he arrived in Lincoln County, New Mexico. This is where he makes history, mostly of the notorious type.
Lincoln County had just been established and was divided between two factions of cattlemen, the John Tunstall/ Alexander McSween side and the James Dolan faction, allied with the county sheriff William Brady. William Bonney (Billy the Kid) joined the Tunstall side, which was ultimately the losing side as well. Each faction had enforcers (gunfighters and criminals). Tunstall was murdered and in revenge, his men, “the regulators”, killed the sheriff. That brought on what came to be called the Lincoln County War, a five day gunfight and siege battle. The regulators were surrounded, McSween was murdered and the Tunstall men that were able to escape scattered. Billy the Kid was on the run for two years before being captured by Pat Garret the first time. The Kid was tried, convicted and incarcerated. He escaped from jail, after shooting both guards, and rode off into the sunset—for a while.
And Pat Garrett?? More is known about him (there usually is for lawmen). He was born in Alabama in 1850, but the family moved to Louisiana in 1853, and lost everything after the Civil War. In 1869, he headed west, resurfacing in 1876 as a buffalo hunter. As the buffalo disappeared, he headed to New Mexico territory. He became a ranch hand for Pete Maxwell, married and had children. Pat Garrett was sworn in as the new sheriff of Lincoln County in 1880 with the understanding that he would clean up Lincoln County. Several times he almost caught Billy, but each time he slipped away or Garrett was given the wrong information. He finally caught him, arrested him and put him in jail. Garrett was away from jail when the Kid escaped. Eight months later, Garrett found out that Billy was staying with Pete Maxwell, at his ranch. He came at night, and shot and killed Billy the Kid.
Almost immediately, Billy the Kid became a folk legend, which in turn mage Garrett seem an assassin. Garrett wrote a book about tracking and killing Billy. It didn’t sell well, but has become quite the collectible. The book was later found to be full of errors and imaginative tales. It was ghost written by a friend of Garrett. Pat did not run for sheriff again, but moved with his family to Texas and briefly became a Texas Ranger. He returned after a year or so to Roswell, New Mexico where his ranch was. He had several businesses that never prospered and moved back to Texas in 1892. In 1896, he returned to New Mexico where he was appointed sheriff of Dona Ana County. He was nominated by President Teddy Roosevelt as customs officer in El Paso, and confirmed by the Senate. He burned his bridges with Roosevelt and was in deep debt the rest of his life. He also was highly disliked for killing Billy, as the Kid had become a folk hero. He was shot in the back as he was going from his ranch into town. His murder was never solved.
As time passed, some people started the rumor that Pat Garrett either shot somebody else and claimed it was Billy or helped him fake his death. Someone even claimed to be Billy in the 1940s. Even so, historical records show that Billy’s body was identified by several different people—most generally agree that Pat Garrett got the right man—Billy the Kid.
- Billy the Kid was involved in at least nine murders. He was said to have committed as many murders as he had years—he was killed at age 21. (He may have been his own best publicist.)
- Over 50 movies have told this famous historical event. He worked on his reputation before his death, and afterward his legend only grew. The first movie was the silent film in 1911, entitled Billy the Kid. Other stars who played him on the silver screen have been Paul Newman, Val Kilmer and Emilio Estevez (in Young Guns, which we have in our collection.)
- When Bill Richardson was governor of New Mexico, Billy the Kid found another champion. Richardson was a New Mexico history buff and was publicly thinking about pardoning William Bonney posthumously. Before Billy the Kid died, he appealed to then governor, Lew Wallace (who while in office wrote Ben Hur!) for a pardon for his role in the Lincoln County Wars. Wallace agreed, but the pardon was never given to him because he was killed. So when Richardson was thinking about this pardon, he churned up old history. The descendants of Pat Garrett started a petition to stop the pardon from going ahead. Bill Richardson is no longer governor of New Mexico, so this pardon will never happen, but it just goes to show that the past is not that far away.
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
We have a great new database for anyone researching authors, literature or writing papers for school. It’s called Gale Literary Sources.
To get to the database from our home page:
- Go to our website.
- Scroll down to eLibrary, the second link (next to Books & More),
- Choose databases.
- Choose the Literature category, which takes you to Gale Literary Sources.
- In this database you can access primary sources, critical articles, literary analysis, and biographical information. Gale has created a single research database to help you in your research.
- To login, use your library card number. (This database is free for all of our library users—all you need is a library card and you can access it.)
Our library subscribes to these components that make up our database:
- Gale Virtual Reference Library is a database of encyclopedias and other specialized reference sources. These reference materials once were accessible only in the library, but now you can access them online from the library or remotely 24/7.
- Using Gale’s Literature Resource Center, you can find up-to-date biographical information, overviews, full-text literary criticism and reviews on nearly 130,000 writers from all time periods, and from around the world.
Scribner Writers Series provides original, scholar signed essays on the lives and works of authors from around the world from all time periods. Entries include concise essays and biographical information.
- Twayne’s is devoted to in-depth critical introductions to the lives and works of major writers of the world. It provides insightful and original commentary on the history and influence of the author and his/her world.
When you search for an author or a title, type the name in the search box. You get the first three articles in several categories. Here is a list of them:
The Content Types tell us that there are 435 critical articles on Ray Bradbury, 358 biographies, 114 overviews, 868 reviews, 126 primary resources and 55 multimedia entries. The multimedia entries are usually NPR interviews which you can listen to or print or download the transcript.
You must keep in mind that some of these articles may be written by Bradbury; maybe he wrote a critical article on an author.
Once you find an article you want to use, you have a choice of offerings from Gale as to how you retrieve your article. You can email it to yourself (this is very helpful when you are here at the library researching, and don’t have money to print out the article. You can email it to yourself and print it at home.) You can download the article and save it on your computer or you can print it out. You can even download the MP3 of an interview. With the citation tools, you can choose your format, or what your teacher wants you to use. You can even get it translated into your language or choice. It will be a machine translation and only in print, but if you need sources for your Spanish class in Spanish, this might be a good way to find articles.
Gale has also created a way for you to highlight areas of text that you want to perhaps emphasize, remember or use as a quote. Once you highlight a section of text or write a note about a section of text, you’ll see the number change in the Highlights and Notes section. You can also print out your notes and highlighted sections. You even have a choice of highlighting colors.
One new feature from this Gale database (and all Gale databases, actually) is that you can save your documents to your Google drive or to Microsoft Live. If you write your papers or reports on either of these, you can put all your documents in the same place!
As if this wasn’t good enough, Gale has upped the ante even more. There is a way you can select the articles you want to look at further. I went through a list of articles and selected the ones I wanted to look at further. These become documents in your folder. When you pull up the folder list, you can open the articles you want to look at, print save or email them.
We hope you have an opportunity to use our new database! We love it at WCPLtn!