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Martin Luther King Jr.: Model Protester

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

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Martin Luther King Jr –. I have a Dream Speech at the Lincoln Memorial

Protests have been in the news for several years, coming out of the blue in Tunisia and spreading to the Arab nations becoming the Arab Spring. We all should remember Ferguson and the horrible continuous deaths that sparked anger, indignation and the Black Live Matter movement.

Well, 2017 is gearing up to be another year of protests. The world witnessed the Women’s March of Washington last month, and the marches around the world in solidarity of this cause. There were protests at airports after President Trump’s Executive Order on immigration went into effect. Scientists are planning to march on Earth Day in April. The protest against building two new pipelines is heating up again. Tunisian lawyers were protesting against a new tax that required them to pay a tax on each case they worked on. Students in South Africa are protesting higher fees for college education, which is similar to what happened here in recent years too. There’s even a website https://popularresistance.org that assists in organizing protests and getting the word out about them. And the protests don’t seem to be going away any time soon. The website www.change.org is also helping people find ways to protest by creating and circulating petitions.

In honor of Black History Month, let’s take a look at one of America’s most famous protestors and his belief in nonviolent resistance. Martin Luther King Jr. was born in Atlanta on January 15, 1929 to a Black middle class family. His father had grown up on a plantation to share cropper parents, but he left as soon as he was able. He worked his way through school and was able to attend Morehouse College, which is an all-black men’s college. He became a preacher, and then married the daughter of Reverend Williams. Reverend Williams was the pastor at Ebenezer Baptist Church; MLK, Sr., “Daddy King” took over the duties when Williams died.

1963 March on Washington

1963 March on Washington

Both Reverend Williams and Daddy King stood against ill treatment, segregation and violence against African-Americans and MLK, Jr. followed in their footsteps. After several instances of facing white prejudice, Martin began to read about the history of his people, about slavery and the Civil War. Martin had always been taught that all people were equal, but reality was quite different, and it was his fervent desire to set it right.

He graduated from high school when he was fifteen, and attended his father’s alma mater, Morehouse College. He and other students were able to discuss prejudice and liberation of the Negroes long into the night and in many of the classes. On one of his summer vacations during college, he and some friends went to Connecticut to work on a tobacco farm, and it amazed them that they could freely go into stores, movies and restaurants.

After seriously considering a law career, he ended up majoring in sociology. But, he then began to realize that being a minister would allow him to have a closer relationship with his fellow man, and it was a good way to impart information. His friends would ask him to lead them in prayer, plus both his father and grandfather had been pastors. He hadn’t planned to become a minister, but he felt the call.

After he graduated from Morehouse, he went to Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania. It was here that he first heard in depth about what Mahatma Gandhi was doing in India, using non-violent resistance to get the British out of India. He had heard of Gandhi’s protest in India, but this time it was first-hand information from the president of Howard University.   His interest in this type of non-violent protest had been piqued when he first read Henry David Thoreau’s Essay on Civil Disobedience. He was very interested in this idea of just refusing to cooperate with the entrenched system in place. As King looked deeper into the philosophy of Gandhi and civil resistance, he came to see for the first time its potency in the area of social reform. … It was this Gandhian emphasis on love and nonviolence that he discovered the method for social reform that he had been seeking.

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Martin Luther King Jr. Montgomery Arrest 1958

As we remember MLK, with his birthday and also Black History Month, and as many times as we can remember his clear call for equality, we remember a leader who showed us how to protest peacefully about things we disagreed with, that we thought were immoral or needed to be fixed. Thank you Dr. King for your example.

“…The nonviolent resisters can summarize their message in the following simple terms: we will take direct action against injustice despite the failure of governmental and other official agencies to act first. We will not obey unjust laws or submit to unjust practices. We will do this peacefully, openly, cheerfully because our aim is to persuade. We adopt the means of nonviolence because our end is a community at peace with itself. We will try to persuade with our words, but if our words fail, we will try to persuade with our acts. We will always be willing to talk and seek fair compromise, but we are ready to suffer when necessary and even risk our lives to become witnesses to truth as we see it.” (quoted from MLK’s Nobel lecture in 1964.)

Fun Fact: there was an error on his birth certificate—his name was listed as Michael Luther King. He was always supposed to be Martin, but was called Mike by his family for a long time. He was able to change and correct his name officially when he applied for his passport.

For more information about MLK, Jr. and peaceful protests, check out these books:

  • I have a dream: writings and speeches that changed the world by Martin Luther King, Jr. (323.092 KIN)
  • The King years: historic moments in the civil rights movement by Taylor Branch (323.0973 BRA)
  • Gospel of freedom: Martin Luther King, Jr.’s letter from Birmingham Jail and the struggle that changed a nation by Jonathan Rieder (323.092 Rei)
  • Partners to history: Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph David Abernathy, and the civil rights movement by Donzaleigh Abernathy (323.1196 ABE)
  • Remembering Martin Luther King, Jr. : his life and crusade in pictures by Charles Johnson & Bob Adelman (92 KING)
  • The autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. by King, Martin Luther, Jr. (92 KING)
  • The King years: historic moments in the Civil Rights movement by Taylor Branch (323.0973 BRA)
  • Gandhi: the true man behind modern India by Jad Adams (92 Gandhi)
  • Witness to the revolution: radicals, resisters, vets, hippies, and the year America lost its mind and found its soul by Clara Bingham (303.4840973 BIN)
  • Toward a theology of radical involvement by Luther D. Ivory (230 IVO)

 


Sources:

Dog Stars by Peter Heller

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

heller-dogIn this post-apocalyptic novel, we meet Hig and his dog, Jasper. Hig survived the world-ending flu pandemic and more. His only companions are Jasper and Bangley, a survivalist and weapons enthusiast. Hig’s way of escaping the monotony and horror is to fly. He goes on perimeter checks for Bangley, he flies to living forests to find deer, and he returns to a hidden stash of sodas in a crashed 18 wheeler. Jasper is his co-pilot; he’s getting on in years, and is almost deaf, but he’s a great companion. Bangley understands that Jasper is an early warning system. When Jasper dies, Hig goes into an understood decline, then decides to go exploring further that his gas will allow. He will have to find a safe place to refuel the plane–he has no idea what he will find, or even if he will live through it.

Heller is an adventure writer who often contributes to NPR. He is also a contributing editor at Outside magazine, Men’s Journal, and National Geographic Adventure, and other magazines. He knows how to describe nature and has a good eye for detail. I was a little worried about the post-apocalyptic setting, but it drew me in and I ended up really liking the book.

December: What else happens besides Christmas?

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

We all know about Christmas when we talk about December holidays. But there are other holidays around the world (and often celebrated in the United States) that you may not know about.  You never know, you may want more days off to celebrate these holidays.  Or a reason to celebrate in the first place!

ninjaaa

Dec. 5 – The Day of the Ninja

This day was either created to commemorate Tom Cruise’s movie the Last Samurai (which had a ninja bit in it) or it was created by the Ninja Burger.  Either way it really caught on, showing up in the nation’s consciousness by 2007.  Now it has evolved to something similar to Talk Like a Pirate Day.  So dress like a ninja on December 5 or watch your favorite ninja movie(s).

nicholas-1062539_1920Dec. 6 – St. Nicholas’ Day

Yes, this is the same Nicholas that our Santa Claus comes from.  Nicholas of Myra was a Christian bishop who legends say was a gift-giver, often putting coins in people’s shoes.  Many people often left their shoes outside, so as not to track in outside dirt and keep the floors clean.  It would have been easy to drop coins in shoes with no one watching.  This day is most observed in the European countries (or families with European backgrounds here in the U.S.). Children often receive treats – including candy, cookies, small toys, or fruit – in stockings, socks, shoes or bags on December 6. Some churches have special services dedicated to the feast of St Nicholas on this day.

Dec. 10 – Dewey Decimal System Day

For library lovers everywhere, surprise! This day commemorates the birth of Melville Dewey (born Dec. 10), the inventor of the Dewey Decimal System of library classification, and if you’ve ever looked up books with a three digit number in a library, you were using the Dewey Decimal System.  Maybe you’ve never thought about how you find a book in the library??  Dewey divided all of the world’s knowledge into ten sections, starting with 000 and ending with 900, using decimals to continue to group books into smaller and smaller subject categories, which would make longer and longer numbers (the longest so far being 331.892829225209712743090511).  Anything that didn’t fit in any category was put in the 000s, which explains why computer books are there.  They weren’t invented until many years after his death!

lucia-13-12-06Dec. 13 – Saint Lucia’s Day

Saint Lucia (or Lucy) was a Christian martyr who according to legend brought food to Christians hiding in the caves and catacombs.  She lit her way with a candle wreath, leaving her hands free to hold as much food as possible.  This day is celebrated (or commemorated) mostly in the Scandinavian countries, where winter lasts longer; since she brought light, which is most appreciated on dark days.  These days, girls are in white dresses with candle wreaths, and they bring cookies and pastries to everyone in the household.

Dec. 16-24 – Los Posadas

Los Posadas are held across Mexico and are becoming more and more popular in the United States. The word posada means inn or shelter, and these nine days commemorate and re-enact the arduous trip that Mary and Joseph took to get to Bethlehem. The celebration begins with a procession through the neighborhood where the participants hold candles and sing Christmas carols. Sometimes there will be individuals who play the parts of Mary and Joseph who lead the procession. Each night they go to one designated home in the neighborhood. There is even a special song for this event—it is “La Cancion Para Pedir Posada”.   When they are finally let in to the house, the celebration starts. It can be either a big party or a small gathering. Often children get to break piñatas to get candy. I’m sure they like this part!

10914365294_eac0fbeefb_bDec. 16 – Ugly Christmas Sweater Day

Switching gears completely, and also on December 16 (this year, it always falls on the third Friday of December) is Ugly Christmas Sweater Day. Basically it is an excuse to have a party and wear the sweaters you are often gifted that you wouldn’t normally wear.  National Ugly Christmas Sweater Day (.com) has created a way you can make your party, either at home or at the office, a fundraising event.  You can have fun and do good at the same time! In many countries, the holiday is associated with fundraising events for children’s charity.

Dec. 17 – Wright Brothers Day

In 1959, Dwight D. Eisenhower proclaimed December 17 as Wright Brothers Day. This is the anniversary of the day they actually got their first plane prototype up in the air in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.  This plane, Flyer, managed to stay in the air 12 seconds and it flew close to 120 feet.  It was definitely a cause for celebration.

hanuka-menorah-by-gil-dekel-2014Dec. 24-31 – Hanukkah

The most well-known holiday on this list is Hanukkah, which this year starts on December 24 and lasts eight days. Since the Jewish calendar is a lunar calendar, the date for the start of Hanukkah is different each year.  This Festival of Lights commemorates a miraculous event in Jewish history.  The Jews were rebelling against their overlords, the Seleucid Greeks, during the Maccabean Revolt—some of the Jews revolted because they didn’t want to worship idol gods. After the victorious Jews regained the Temple in Jerusalem, they rededicated it to God.  When they checked the oil for lighting the menorah (the seven candle slotted candelabrum), they only had enough oil for one day.  That oil lasted for eight days, by which time they had created a new supply of consecrated oil.   The priests called this The Festival of Lights or Hanukkah (or Chanukah.)  This is why menorahs have nine candles, eight for the eight day festival and the middle candle to light them with.

Dec. 26 – Boxing Day

Boxing Day is always the day after Christmas and is mainly celebrated in the countries of the United Kingdom.  There are similar celebrations in Germany, though.  Why Boxing Day?  The day after Christmas was traditionally the day the collection boxes in the churches were opened and the money distributed to the poor.  Some churches are still carrying on this tradition.  In Holland, the boxes were ceramic, and called pigs—could this be where our term piggy bank comes from??  Also, servants were given the day off on this day, probably to be able to get a share of the collected coffers from the collection boxes.  So many companies continued this tradition in Britain that December 26th is now an official public holiday.    Boxing Day has become Britain’s Black Friday, but many people are unhappy with this.

*Boxing Day is also St. Stephen’s Day—the Christmas carol Good King Wenceslas tells the story of the king who goes out to help a poor family on the Feast of Stephen, or St. Stephen’s Day.

342794044_eaec653587_bDec. 26-Jan. 1 – Kwanzaa

Kwanzaa was established in 1966 by Ron Karenga; his goal was to reconnect black Americans to their African roots and recognize their struggles as a people by building community. Derived from the Swahili term, “matunda ya kwanza,” which means “first-fruits,” Kwanzaa is based on African harvest celebrations. According to the official Kwanzaa Web site,

“Kwanzaa was created out of the philosophy of Kawaida, which is a cultural nationalist philosophy that argues that the key challenge in black people’s lives is the challenge of culture, and that what Africans must do is to discover and bring forth the best of their culture, both ancient and current, and use it as a foundation to bring into being models of human excellence and possibilities to enrich and expand our lives.”

Just as many African harvest celebrations run for seven days, Kwanzaa has seven principles known as the Nguzo Saba. They are umoja (unity); kujichagulia (self-determination); ujima (collective work and responsibility); ujamaa (cooperative economics); nia (purpose); kuumba (creativity); and imani (faith). Kwanzaa is not celebrated as much as it was in the 1960s and 70s, for several reasons. First is the overkill of Christmas celebrating, with presents and food, and the second is it’s a relatively recent creation, which means it doesn’t carry a long tradition of celebration behind it.

 


Sources:

 

Ian Fleming: A Life Leading to 007

Ian Fleming’s commissioned drawing of James Bond

Ian Fleming’s commissioned drawing of James Bond

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

“When I wrote the first one in 1953, I wanted Bond to be an extremely dull, uninteresting man to who things happened. I wanted him to be a blunt instrument…when I was casting around for a name for my protagonist I thought by God (James Bond) is the dullest name I ever heard.”
—-Ian Fleming, The New Yorker, 21 April 1962

Ian Fleming, James Bond’s creator, was born on May 28, 1908 in London. His father was Member of Parliament representing Dundee Scotland, and was killed in WW I. The not yet world-famous Winston Churchill wrote his father’s obituary (that’s what I call connections). Fleming attended several schools, but never really excelled academically in any of them, but he always did well in athletics. He went to Eton College, and when that didn’t work out, he attended Sandhurst Military College, but he wasn’t interested in a military career either.

picmonkey-collageHis frustrated mother decided to send him to a small school in the Tyrolian Mountains, where he improved his foreign language skills and also learned mountain climbing and skiing. He loved his schooling there. From Austria he went to Munich University to finish his education and take his Foreign Officer entrance exams. When he did not pass these exams, he became a journalist with Reuters. He enjoyed his time with Reuters honing his writing craft, and in 1933 he was sent to Moscow to cover a trial. Eventually he bowed to family pressure and became a banker and stock broker. He really didn’t enjoy that. Thankfully for him, and everyone who loves James Bond, his time in Russia paid off. He was asked by the Foreign Office to return to Moscow and write about a trade mission, but he was really sent there to spy.

He must have done well since his name was recommended for a new position, assistant to the director of naval intelligence. He became a lieutenant in the Special Branch of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve and had some success with his ideas being implemented during World War II. After the war, he took a job with Kemsley News, which owned many newspapers in England. He was the foreign manager running the foreign correspondents but he was able to fulfill  dream by taking two months off every year and live in Jamaica. Several years earlier, he had told friends he was going to move to Jamaica and write the best spy novel ever. And so he did. And continued to do so every year until his death

In April 1953, the first James Bond novel by Ian Fleming was published. He believed that Casino Royale would not be popular, but it was an instant success! Even the London Times gave it a rave review. James Bond was a character based on some of the commandos Fleming knew during his service with the Naval Intelligence division. The name James Bond was chosen because it was short, strong and found on the cover of one of Fleming’s bird books. James Bond was also the name of an American ornithologist, who had several books, one about the birds of the West Indies.

In 1964, after years of failing health, he died from a heart attack. As his legacy, he had written these twelve James Bond novels

  1. Casino Royale
  2. Live and Let Die
  3. Moonraker
  4. Diamonds are Forever
  5. From Russia with Love
  6. Dr. No
  7. Goldfinger
  8. For your Eyes Only
  9. Thunderball
  10. The Spy who loved me
  11. On her majesty’s secret service
  12. You only live twice

These last two were published posthumously

  1. The Man with the golden gun
  2. Octopussy and The Living Daylights (2 short stories)

Since Fleming’s death, several authors have been authorized to continue the James Bond series. John Gardner wrote fourteen novels. Raymond Benson wrote six novels, some novelizations and short stories. Each of these authors wrote one book: Kingsley Amis, Sebastian Faulks, Jeffrey Deaver, William Boyd and Anthony Horowitz.


Interesting things about James Bond from Film School Rejects’ study of the men who played Bond, their movies, and their highs and lows

  • Bond’s number—007—was assigned by Fleming in reference to one of British naval intelligence’s key achievements of World War I—the breaking of the German diplomatic code. One of the German documents cracked and read by the British was the Zimmermann Telegram, which was coded 0075, and was one of the factors that led to the US entering the war.
  • Even though he is considered the best James Bond by many, Connery was not the first choice. Fleming wanted David Niven to play bond, and a list of other actors were also considered.
  • Lazenby was the youngest actor to play James Bond, stepping into the role at the age of 30. Moore took the role of Bond at 45; he was the oldest actor to start playing Bond.
  • Moonraker was the studio’s answer to Star Wars, sending Bond into space to fight a master race with lasers.
  • Tomorrow Never Dies was the first movie to have its entire production budget covered by product placement consideration fees.
  • Timothy Dalton was offered the role of James Bond twice: once for On Her Majesty’s Secret Service and again in the middle of Roger Moore’s tenure. He did not become Bond until 1987. He thought he was too young when first offered the role.
  • Pierce Brosnan was also considered for the role twice. When Roger Moore left the franchise, Cubby Broccoli tapped Brosnan as the next James Bond. But Brosnan had just started Remington Steele, and was not released from his contract.
  • The franchise decided to reboot the entire Bond series after Brosnan’s last film and Daniel Craig won the role. Although not the youngest actor to play James Bond, he is the only actor to have been born after the release of Dr. No.
  • James Bond has a Facebook page @James Bond 007

Interestign webpages about James Bond:

France’s Rights of Man

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

Declaration_of_the_Rights_of_Man_and_of_the_Citizen_in_1789On August 26, 1789, the French Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which was truly a remarkable document. Although inspired by The Declaration of Independence, it contained more principles than that document; it was drafted by the Marquis de Lafayette, who was impressed by the document written by his good friend Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson was in Paris as our ambassador during this time.

The Declaration was a statement of democratic principles grounded in the philosophical and political ideas of Enlightenment thinkers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The document proclaimed the Assembly’s commitment to replace the ancien régime (meaning the king and the way the county had been governed for centuries) based on equal opportunity, freedom of speech, popular sovereignty and representative government.

Here, in its entirety is Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen:

The representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all the members of the Social body, shall remind them continually of their rights and duties; in order that the acts of the legislative power, as well as those of the executive power, may be compared at any moment with the objects and purposes of all political institutions and may thus be more respected, and, lastly, in order that the grievances of the citizens, based hereafter upon simple and incontestable principles, shall tend to the maintenance of the constitution and redound to the happiness of all. Therefore the National Assembly recognizes and proclaims, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and of the citizen:

Articles:

Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.

The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation.

Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.

Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.

Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.

No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. Any one soliciting, transmitting, executing, or causing to be executed, any arbitrary order, shall be punished. But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law shall submit without delay, as resistance constitutes an offense.

The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and promulgated before the commission of the offense.

As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be deemed indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner’s person shall be severely repressed by law.

No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law.

The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law.

The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. These forces are, therefore, established for the good of all and not for the personal advantage of those to whom they shall be intrusted.

A common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means.

All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to the necessity of the public contribution; to grant this freely; to know to what uses it is put; and to fix the proportion, the mode of assessment and of collection and the duration of the taxes.

Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of his administration.

A society in which the observance of the law is not assured, nor the separation of powers defined, has no constitution at all.

Since property is an inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be deprived thereof except where public necessity, legally determined, shall clearly demand it, and then only on condition that the owner shall have been previously and equitably indemnified.

 

For months after this declaration, the Assembly members debated fundamental questions about the shape and expanse of France’s new political landscape. Would the clergy owe allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church or the French government? And probably most importantly, how much authority would the king retain? The Assembly adopted France’s first written constitution on September 3, 1791, which was basically a compromise proposed by more moderate voices in the Assembly, establishing a constitutional monarchy. The more radical elements in the Assembly were not happy, namely Maximilien de Robespierre, Camille Desmoulins and Georges Danton; they wanted a more republican form of government and a trial for Louis XVI.

Marie Antoinette, Portrait by Jean-Baptiste Gautier Dagoty, 1775. Musée Antoine Lécuyer.

Marie Antoinette, Portrait by Jean-Baptiste Gautier Dagoty, 1775. Musée Antoine Lécuyer.

In April 1792, the newly elected Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria and Prussia, because it believed that French nobles leaving the country were building counterrevolutionary alliances. In Paris, the political crisis took a much more radical turn when a group of insurgents attacked the royal residence in Paris and arrested the king on August 10, 1792. The following month, amid a wave of violence in which Parisian insurrectionists massacred hundreds of accused counterrevolutionaries and the Legislative Assembly was replaced by the National Convention, which proclaimed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the French republic. On January 21, 1793, it sent King Louis XVI, condemned to death for high treason and crimes against the state, to the guillotine; his wife Marie-Antoinette suffered the same fate nine months later.

1793 saw the Revolution’s most violent and turbulent phase. In June 1793, the Jacobin party seized control of the National Convention from the more moderate Girondin party and instituted a series of radical measures, including the establishment of a new calendar and the eradication of Christianity!! They also unleashed the bloody Reign of Terror (“la Terreur”); for 10 months suspected enemies of the revolution (the Jacobins) were guillotined by the thousands. Many of the killings were carried out under orders from Robespierre until his own execution on July 28, 1794. His death marked the beginning of the more moderate phase in which the French people revolted against the Reign of Terror’s excesses.

Jacques-Louis_David_-_The_Emperor_Napoleon_in_His_Study_at_the_Tuileries_-_Google_Art_Project

The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries

On August 22, 1795, the National Convention, composed largely of those assembly members who had survived the Reign of Terror, approved a new constitution that created France’s first bicameral (two houses) legislature. Executive power would lie in the hands of a five-member Directory (“Directoire”) appointed by parliament. Royalists and Jacobins protested the new regime but were swiftly silenced by the army, which was now being led by a young (and successful) Napoleon Bonaparte.

By the late 1790s, the government relied almost entirely on the military to maintain authority and had ceded much of their power to the generals in the field. On November 9, 1799, frustrated with the Directory leadership, Bonaparte staged a coup d’état, abolishing the Directory and appointing himself France’s “first consul;” soon to become Emperor of France, and then Europe.

 

Storming of the Bastille and arrest of the Governor Bernard-René de Launay, 14 July 1789. Museum of the History of France, Versailles.

Storming of the Bastille and arrest of the Governor Bernard-René de Launay, 14 July 1789. Museum of the History of France, Versailles.

Books that might be of interest for this time period:

  • The Black Count: Glory Revolution, Betrayal and the Real Count of Monte Cristo by Tom Reiss (92 DUMAS)
  • Several biographies on Napoleon (92 NAPOLEON)
  • Mrs. Adams in Winter: A Journey in the Last Days of Napoleon by Michael O’Brien (940.27092 OBR)
  • The Greater Journey: Americans in France, 1830-1900 by David McCullough (920.009213044361 MACC – At Fairview)
  • How Paris became Paris: The Invention of the Modern City by Joan DeJean (944.361033 DEJ)
  • Angels of Paris: An Architectural Tour through the History of Paris by Rosemary Flannery (704.9 FLA)
  • Walks through Marie Antoinette’s Paris by Diana Reid Haig (914.436104484 HAI)
  • Paris Under Water: How the City of Light Survived the Great Flood of 1910 by Jeffrey H Jackson (944.360813 JAC)
  • Seven Ages of Paris by Alastair Horne (944.361 HOR)
  • The Paris Years of Thomas Jefferson by William Howard Adams (973.46 ADA)

 


Sources:

 

Virginia Dare and the Lost Colony of Roanoke

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

Baptism of Virginia Dare, lithograph, 1880

Baptism of Virginia Dare, lithograph, 1880

Virginia Dare was the first child born in any British colony and part of the first mystery in the “new world.” She was born in 1587, in the Roanoke Colony (located in North Carolina now) and named after the Virginia colony where her parents lived. She was also the grand-daughter of the colony’s governor, John White. The Roanoke Colony was later known as the Lost Colony, one of the greatest unsolved mysteries of our country’s history.

Sir Walter Raleigh received the right to set up a colony from the Queen; he wanted the gold and riches the Spanish were getting, while the Queen wanted a base in the area to attack (and plunder) the Spanish ships coming from the new world full of gold. Even though Raleigh himself never visited North American, he sent two representatives to explore the area. They landed on Roanoke Island in 1584 and established good relations with the natives, taking two natives back to England. Raleigh met with the natives and decided to send an expedition, led by Sir Richard Grenville. As the men explored the area, they discovered that a silver cup was missing and accused the natives. They killed the villagers and burned the town—all for a silver cup. Grenville left the colonists to establish a fort and went back to England for more supplies. Surprisingly, the natives no longer viewed the English as friendly, and often attacked the fort. The ship promising to return didn’t come with fresh supplies. Sir Francis Drake stopped by to say hello, and offered to take anyone back to England who wanted to go; some did—they were the lucky ones. A second colony expedition, organized by Raleigh, was led by John White (a friend of Raleigh’s), and were to settle near Chesapeake Bay. Before they unloaded at Chesapeake, they had orders to check on the Roanoke Colony.

roanokeThis second expedition found no one in the colony. The colonists were forced to stay behind by the fleet’s commander, Simon Fernandez (reasons unknown), while the ship went back to England for reinforcements. Before he sailed away, White tried to re-establish friendly relations with the Native Americans; some tribes were friendly, others still were angry over the previous treatment of their tribesmen. The colonists watched as the ship left them in the new world. White wanted to get back as soon as he could, after all his daughter and granddaughter, Virginia Dare, were at Roanoke. He could find no captain to take him back in the winter months, and then in 1588, the Spanish attacked the English in the grand Armada, which further delayed his return. In 1590, White’s relief ship finally landed on Roanoke Island and found the settlement deserted. No people, no bodies, no signs of struggle. They only found this word carved in a pole: CROATOAN.

The return of Governor White to the "Lost Colony"

The return of Governor White to the “Lost Colony”

As to what happened to the 115 colonists living on Roanoke Island, no one has ever found any clues or remains. Only the word CROATOAN. Was it a clue? What did it mean?

Several ideas have been explored over the centuries. They could have been killed, but where were the bodies? They could have been assimilated into other friendly tribes; there was a Croatoan tribe that was friendly with the colonists. This would have accounted for no bodies and no struggles. But wouldn’t other tribes in the area have given this news to other white men? No one really tried to investigate until Captain John Smith, of Jamestown fame, tried to ask the nearby tribes if they knew what happened. He was told that a friendly tribe took them in. He was also told by Chief Powhatan that he and his tribe had murdered them all. He even showed Smith things he said had belonged to the white colonists. There were wild rumors of two story Native American buildings, possibly erected by the missing colonists.

Virginia Dare’s name has become a way to attract tourists for North Carolina. Many locations are named after her, including Dare County, North Carolina; the Virginia Dare Trail and the Virginia Dare Memorial Bridge, which spans the Croatoan Sound. Her birthday is celebrated annually on Roanoke Island. On her 350th birthday in 1937, the community of Roanoke Island launched a play entitled “The Lost Colony.” This drama was supposed to be a one year run, but has become a permanent and popular Outer Banks attraction.

Marble sculpture of Virginia Dare formerly in St Bride's Church, Fleet St

Marble sculpture of Virginia Dare formerly in St Bride’s Church, Fleet St

In 2005, PBS aired a Time Team America program: the team traveled to Roanoke Island looking to find the site of Fort Raleigh and any clues as to what happened to the Lost Colony. This was a collaboration of archaeologists and scientists who are given 3 days to dig and study interesting historic sites to see if they can find more information. In an different program, aired on the History Channel in 2015, archaeologists searching around an old settlement area found some intriguing items, including a gold ring, a musket barrel and a slate that may have been used for children to learn their alphabet. Perhaps, someday, we’ll finally find out what happened to the vanished Roanoke colony.

To read about Virginia Dare, we suggest these books:

  • Roanoke by Margaret Lawrence (F LAW)
  • Roanoke: solving the mystery of the lost colony (975.6 MIL)
  • Roanoke: a novel of the lost colony by Sonia Levitin (F LEV)
  • The Mysterious disappearance of Roanoke colony in American history (YA 975.6175 KEN)
  • A Kingdom strange: the brief and tragic history of the lost colony of Roanoke (975.6175 HOR)
  • The Virginia adventure: Roanoke to James Towne: an archaeological and historical odyssey (975.54251 NOE)
  • The Lost colony: a symphonic drama in two acts, with music, pantomime and dance (812 GRE)
  • Time Team America. Fort Raleigh, NC (DVD 930.109756175 TIM)

 


Sources:

The Scandalous Cleopatra

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

Queen-cleopatraCleopatra is still an enigma even after 2000 years. So much so that books are still being written about her. Everyone knows the story of Cleopatra, who by the way was the 7th Cleopatra to rule Egypt. She read the writing on the wall when Rome began to conquer nation after nation. Plus she wanted to win the Egyptian throne, and rule alone, not with her brother/husband. She wanted to get on the good side of Julius Caesar when he was in Alexandria. Knowing that her brother Ptolemy XIII would keep her from meeting with Julius Caesar, she had herself wrapped in a rug and delivered to Julius. And thus she outwitted her rival brother. She and Julius had a good relationship; she became his mistress, even having his child. When Julius Caesar was murdered, she chose to back Mark Anthony against Octavian (soon to be Augustus Caesar). Octavian, upset that Mark Anthony has chosen Cleopatra over his own sister Octavia, broke the second triumvirate and declared war on Cleopatra (and Mark Anthony). After his defeat at the Battle of Actium, Mark Anthony fell on his sword in defeat and Cleopatra committed suicide by death by poisonous snake on August 12, 30 B.C.

This is what history tells us. Here are some facts you may not have known:

Cleopatra may not have been Egyptian, or maybe she was. Ptolemy I, a general in Alexander the Great’s army, became ruler of Egypt after Alexander died. His line, the Ptolemaic line, lasted for several centuries, ending with the death of Cleopatra. Greek was the language of the ruling family in the beginning; our Cleopatra (VII) knew the Egyptian language, but also spoke Greek and Latin and many others. Outside Europe, in Africa and in Islamic tradition, she was remembered very differently. Arab writers refer to her as a scholar; 400 years after her death her statue was still honored at Philae, a religious center that also attracted pilgrims from outside Egypt.

Cleopatra_VII_tetradrachm_Syria_mint

A tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII, Syria mint

Many scholars believe that Cleopatra wasn’t as beautiful as once believed. She was intelligent and well educated, speaking as many as a dozen languages and was familiar with mathematics, philosophy, oratory and astronomy. She reportedly enjoyed talking to learned men and women and could hold her own with them. Coins with her portrait show her with manly features and a large, hooked nose (however, she might have intentionally portrayed herself as masculine as a display of strength). Plutarch claimed that Cleopatra’s beauty was “not altogether incomparable,” and that it was instead her mellifluous speaking voice and “irresistible charm” that made her so desirable. So it may have been only Roman propaganda that portrayed her as a debauched temptress as shown in the movies.

Members of the Ptolemaic dynasty often married within the family to preserve the purity of their bloodline. Cleopatra’s parents were probably even brother and sister. Cleopatra eventually married both of her younger brothers, each of whom served as her ceremonial spouse and co-regent at different times during her reign. Her first sibling-husband, Ptolemy XIII, defeated her and ran her out of Egypt after she tried to become sole ruler, and they faced off in a civil war. Cleopatra regained the upper hand by teaming with Julius Caesar, and becoming his mistress. Nine months into their relationship, she gave him a son, naming the baby Caesarion – little Caesar.  After Caesar’s son was born, he backed Cleopatra’s claim to the throne and helped her regain it.  Because of this alliance, Ptolemy drowned in the Nile River after being defeated in battle. Following the war, Cleopatra married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, but it is believed that she had him murdered in a bid to make her son Caesarion her co-ruler. She also engineered the execution of her sister, Arsinoe, whom she considered a rival to throne.

Cleopatra’s relationship with Caesar caused quite a scandal in Rome: Egypt and its pleasure-loving culture were despised as decadent by the rule conscious Romans. But the real reason their relationship was so scandalous was that Caesar had no other sons. He was married to Calpurnia, and had had two wives before her, but he had no son, until now. The worry that Caesarion, an Egyptian, might grow up to claim to rule over Rome as Caesar’s heir was a direct threat to Rome.

Antony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Antony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Eventually, Cleopatra married Mark Antony and had three children with him, which made the Romans even angrier with her. Antony’s rival Octavian portrayed him as a traitor under the sway of a scheming seductress, and in 32 B.C., the Roman Senate declared war on Cleopatra. The conflict reached its climax the following year in a famous naval battle at Actium. Cleopatra personally led several dozen Egyptian warships into the fray alongside Antony’s fleet, but they were no match for Octavian’s navy. The battle soon devolved into a rout, and Cleopatra and Antony were forced to break through the Roman line and flee to Egypt.

Augustus (Octavian) founded his reign on the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Antony. When he had the chance to have a month named in his honor, he chose the eighth month, in which Cleopatra died to create a yearly reminder of her defeat. She chose to die rather than suffer the violence of being paraded and shamed, led through the streets of Rome as a defeated enemy. Augustus had to make do with an image of her that was carried through the streets instead.

Most scientists thought the grave was under the sea near Alexandria (in or near a temple that fell into the sea after too many earthquakes), but others are not so sure. Kathleen Martinez, a criminal lawyer who became an archaeologist to find Cleopatra’s tomb, has found promising signs at some of the sights Cleopatra was known to visit of a possible gravesite. At the close of the program, the search was still on. I suppose we’ll know when the world knows. In the meantime, learn more about her at the library.

Elizabeth Taylor as Cleopatra

Elizabeth Taylor as Cleopatra

  • Cleopatra, a Life by Stacy Schiff (92 Cleopatra)
  • Cleopatra: Histories, Dreams, Distractions (92 Cleopatra)
  • Cleopatra and Antony: Power, Love and Politics in the Ancient World (932.0210922 PRE)
  • Nefertiti and Cleopatra: Queen-Monarchs of Egypt (932.014 SAM)
  • Alexandria: The Last Light of Cleopatra (916.20455 STO)
  • Rome’s Revolution: Death of the Republic and Birth of the Empire (937.05 ALS)
  • The Pharaoh: Life at Court and on Campaign (932.0099 SHA)

Sources:

π (Pi) Approximation Day

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

pi-151602_960_720Pi Approximation Day is always celebrated on July 22; this year it’s on a Friday. Why you ask? Because the fraction 22/7 is used as a common approximation of π. The number π is a mathematical constant that is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter and is approximately equal to 3.14159…. π (Pi) Day is celebrated by mathematicians, geeks and everyone else on March 14—3.14, get it?) It has been represented by the π, a Greek letter for P and pronounced pi, since the mid-18th century. Because π is an irrational number, it can’t be shown as a fraction, such as ½, ¼ or 3/16. Consequently, its decimal representation never ends and never settles into a permanent repeating pattern.

A fraction represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts, describing how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, eight-fifths, three-quarters. A simple fraction consists of an integer numerator, displayed above a line (or before a slash), and a non-zero integer denominator, displayed below (or after) that line.

5525295088_393b010f76_bAn approximation is a mathematical and scientific term used to describe anything that is very near to but not exactly equal to something else. (In English, we’d use the word roughly or almost.)

Want to celebrate π Approximation Day?

Eat pie, any kind will do. See how many slices you can make. Try another mathematical problem of how to get the first slice out without making a mess. This will take much experimentation!
Or eat something round if you don’t like pie. Pizza anyone??

Pi_pie2Interesting Books in our library about Pi or π:

  • How to Bake Pi: An Edible Exploration of the Mathematics of Mathematics (501.1 CHE)
  • Raspberry Pi for dummies (004.165 COO)
  • Adventures in Raspberry Pi (J 004.1675 PHI, at Bethesda Branch)
  • Raspberry Pi for Kids for Dummies (J 004.165 WEN)
  • Why Pi? (J 530.8 BAL)

Sources:

Happy Bastille Day!: Now what is it?

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

Bastille Day is July 14 this year and every year in France. It is the French National Day which celebrates the unity of the french people and commemorates the storming of the Bastille in 1789. So what exactly is a Bastille, you want to know?

Prise_de_la_BastilleThe Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine, for the district that it was in. For most of its history was used as a state prison by the kings of France. The fortress was originally built to defend the eastern gate of the city of Paris from the English threat in the Hundred Years’ War, in the 1300s. It was a strong fortress with eight towers which protected that highly strategic entrance at the eastern edge of Paris. It was made into a state prison in 1417, used by both the invading English and the French. As Paris grew and spread beyond the gates, the Bastille became surrounded by houses, and was a less of a fortress and more of a prison. King Louis XIV used the Bastille to lock away any of the nobility who opposed him or angered him. Under kings Louis XV and XVI, the fortress was used to detain prisoners from all classes and as a police station, prison and arsenal.

On July 14th, 1789the Bastille was stormed by a crowd filled with revolutionary zeal, some intent on freeing the prisoners, others who wanted the valuable gunpowder held within the fortress. The seven remaining prisoners were found and released. This revolt was the start of the French Revolution. The Bastille became an important symbol for the French Republican movement, and was later demolished and replaced by the Place de la Bastille.

Bastille_Day_2014_Paris_-_Color_guards_034But how do they celebrate Bastille Day?

  • Every July 14, a large military parade takes place along the Champs Elysées, the famous French avenue that runs from the Arc de Triomphe. It is the biggest parade that takes place in all of Europe. During the 2015 parade, three different anti-terror squads marched in the parade to honor the 10,000 troops that helped secure safety in the aftermath of the Charlie Hebdo massacre.
  • Another part of the celebrations are the Fireman’s Balls. In this tradition, which started in 1937, fire stations open their doors to host fundraising dance parties. The money collected goes to help funding of the fire stations all over France.
  • And another thing you must be aware of—you never wish a Frenchman (or woman) Happy Bastille Day.   In France, July 14th is always la fête du 14-juillet (the July 14th holiday) or more officially, la fête nationale (The National Holiday). And everyone sings La Marseillaise, which is the French national anthem. “Allons enfants de la patrie…”
  • Bastille Day isn’t a celebration only in France; it is celebrated all over the world. Two of the largest outside France are in the United States: in New Orleans, where Francophiles celebrate the holiday for a week long, and in New York City, where a block party takes place on 60th street.

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Books and other materials you may want to a take a look at:

  • A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens really shows you the French Revolution. If you haven’t read it in a while, maybe think about reading it again. It’s the easiest to read, in my opinion.
  • To get in the French mood, consider reading a book by Alexandre Dumas. He wrote The Three Musketeers, The Man in the Iron Mask, The Count of Monte Cristo and more novels set in France.
  • If you want to know more about the Dumas family, think about reading the Black Count: Glory, Revolution and Betrayal and The Real Count of Monte Cristo by Tom Reiss. And yes, Alexandre Dumas was black.
  • We have books on traveling to Paris and France in the travel section. Find them in 914.4. This is also the same call number for finding the DVDs on traveling to France.
  • For a great background on Paris during the Revolution, you may want to read The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris, 1830-1900 by David McCullough. This author excels at writing historical fiction that is readable and enjoyable.

 


Sources:

 

The Tournament by Matthew Reilly

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

the-tournamentMatthew Reilly’s new novel is historical fiction and a mystery, so he’s mixing two genres, rather well. I thought. I wanted to read it because of the historical side, and didn’t really know it was a mystery until I got to into the book.

Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan (and basically emperor) of the Ottoman Empire has invited all the kings and rulers to send a chess master and representative to take part in the greatest chess match ever. He is a man very few people ever say no to; two Papal representatives attend. Henry VIII of England, whose delegation travels the farthest, decides to send his teen-aged daughter Elizabeth. After all, she is third in line to the throne at this time, and not expected to reign. She is accompanied by several chaperones—her tutor, one lady in waiting, a nice, stalwart couple, and ten guards. Not many guardsmen when going into possibly enemy territory, especially when they can’t enter Istanbul proper… Her tutor happens to be Roger Ascham, worldly, esteemed scholar and solver of mysteries. When a papal representative is murdered, The Sultan asked Roger to investigate. (His name was suggested to the Sultan by Michelangelo.)

There is a lot of name dropping here, but it all could have happened. The story moves along with several more murders, which as it turns out are all connected. Elizabeth learns lessons daily about dealing with nobles and royals from other countries and other religions. I didn’t know all that much about chess, playing the game that is, but I still found it interesting. And as Reilly wrote in the afterword, Elizabeth’s younger years are not that well documented. She could have gone abroad. Elizabeth meets Ivan IV of Russia here (known to history as Ivan the Terrible), who did correspond with her and even proposed to her. History would indeed be different had she accepted.

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