By Lon Maxwell and Rebecca Tischler, Reference Department
I blame my sister, it is completely her fault that I refuse to lend out books without making sure the other person understands that if it is not returned to me in the condition they borrowed it, they will buy me a brand new book. I’ve been reading, a lot, ever since a teacher told me to try actually reading the books instead of just looking at the pretty pretty pictures and making up a story. I was hooked, and bought ridiculous numbers of books. So of course, at times I was treated as a miniature lending library because of my “surplus.” I was very generous at first, especially to my sister, until she brought back one of my Harry Potter books SPLIT down the spine. SPLIT!! I repaired my poor book to the best of my abilities (I’m still waiting for it to fall apart again), and then my sister brought back another book that had WATER DAMAGE. It’d been sitting in the RAIN! THE HORROR!!!
Needless to say, I was tired of being brought back books that I had to repair (it wasn’t just my sister, but as the little sister, I feel it is my duty to put as much blame on her as possible for my quirks). Then I found out that someone who had been reading my copy of Pride and Prejudice until it was literally falling apart (who shall not be named), was buying themselves a brand new copy because they loved it sooo much they needed a copy of their own (after destroying mine). So when they showed it to me, I gave them the book they had destroyed and told them that the new copy was now MINE!!! There may even have been evil laughter. And glowing eyes… and the possibility that I grew three feet…. ANYWAY, suffice to say, that I now have rules about book lending and how others treat my books. And then I realized, these are good ideas for ANYONE. ALL books should be treated well. So a co-worked and I have decided to share ideas for, HOW TO READ A BOOK!
Take it away LON!
There are many suggestions on posture and physical attitude for reading properly, but I think they’re really just nonsense. Find the way you like to read at whatever moment you have. I have known people to hang upside down in chairs and read like that for hours. How you adjust your body is whatever suits you and your environment (I certainly wouldn’t recommend the upside down posture for, say, the bus). Maybe try book yoga.
This brings us to the book itself. For something made out of trees, books are remarkably fragile. You never want to bend a book cover back around the spine of a book. I’ve see many a paperback fall apart because someone felt it would be easier to read if they could view one page at a time. In hardbacks, this is impossible, but paperbacks are sufficiently pliable to be contorted this way. The problem is that the signatures (the individual sections of pages) are glued to the spine. When you bend the book past a certain degree the glue cracks and you can end up with chapter 27 floating free in the wind while you run after it.
When you want to mark a page, never dog ear the corner. Folding paper creates a point of weakness. Over time the corner will break off. Use a bookmark whenever possible, which means always. You don’t need one of those tasseled slips of laminated card from by the register at your favorite book store. Use whatever you have to hand. If you search your pockets wallet or purse you will most likely find a receipt from something. These make excellent improvised place holders. You will want to avoid things that may have food residue or adhesives on them as these can degrade the paper over time, so that gum wrapper is not the best idea.
Often you will find that you run across a section or passage of a book that you want to preserve or share. Writing and highlighting in books has two camps, those who shudder at the thought and those that think we who shudder need to take a deep breath more often. I hate running across a used book that I’ve been seeking for ages only to find the pages marked up by some prior bibliophile, and librarians will go apoplectic when they find it in the lending books. Personally, I endorse the use of sticky notes and flags, but only for temporary use. The preservation department of the Smithsonian Institute thinks differently. The notes and flags do leave behind an adhesive that will attract dirt and can contain chemicals harmful to the paper over time. If there is something that impresses you so much that you want to preserve, annotate or expound on it, then purchase a little journal to record the passage and your thoughts. You can even note the page in your book journal to return for later perusing.
Now for the big no-nos:
- Don’t read while you eat. Think about a bag of Cheetos and your favorite tome. Imagine how every page would end up with greasy orange fingerprints if you ate them while reading. I’m pretty sure that my wife would murder me and never feel a moments remorse if I got cool ranch powder on her first edition of Visions of Cody. The thing is, all food has these residues. They’re just not the color of orange highlighter. Food residue contains acids and oils that damage paper as well as attract bugs that eat paper like roaches. Always eat lunch while reading? Your bookcase is full of enough food particulates and paper to make a cockroach buffet.
- Don’t read in the tub, regardless of whether the book is in the tub with you or not. Paper and water do not play well. That includes the humidity that steams up your mirrors. The same goes for the beach with the added dangers of sand and salt, camping with its grime and weather, and boating with all of the above and an unsteady platform on which to place yourself. I know the joys of reading on the beach and while camping, so if you do decide to chance it, try to save it for those cheap mass market books you pick up at the pharmacy or grocery store.
After all this you may think that I’m some sort of book preservation fanatic, and you’d probably be right. I work in a library after all. However if you enjoy books, you most likely want to share that love with others. Give them the best possible book when you loan them out by avoiding simple damage. If you like these suggestions and want to learn more about preserving your collection as a whole, please see our printed material preservation article.
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Department
Last Month, we had an interactive display upstairs. Patrons could add their ancestry to a world map and see where some of their neighbors came from as well. Some had many ancestries, and some only had one, but it was interesting to see how diverse our patrons were.
And those who didn’t know their background, we pointed them to the Special Collections department, where patrons can get some help doing genealogical research with databases such as Ancestry.com and HeritageQuest. If you want to know more about where your family comes from, ask one of our wonderful Special Collections Librarians for help.
But for now, take a look at all the responses that were left at the display.
- English, Welsh, Polish, German, French, Scandinavian, Scottish
- Greek, English
- Snowbeast (AKA Canadian)
- Tamil, Hindi
- Prussia, Austria, Germany
- Italy, Germany
- Norwegian, German
- African American, German
- German, Prussian, Polish
- English, Welsh, Italian
- Tamil, Hindi
- English, Scottish, Norman French
- French, Great Britain
- Mexican, Spanish
- French, Mexican
- Italy, Germany, Europe
- English, Irish
- German, French, Irish
- Scottish, English, French
- Swedish, German
- Swiss-German, English
- French, Irish
- Polish, English, Irish
- Chinese, Hunan
- Thai, Chinese
- German, Swiss
- Pennsylvania Dutch
- Ireland, Germany
- At this library we found out the Hill family from Texas is the Hill family from ESSEX U.K.!
- Irish, Italian
- Norwegian, Icelandic
- Czech, Dutch, German, English
- Norwegian, French, Polish
- Brazilian, Italian, Irish, English
- Irish, German
- Tartar Kazakhstan
- Swedish, English, Scottish, Irish
- Scottish, Scandinavian, Polynesian, German
- Mexicana Latin of African and Spanish ancestry
- Venezuela, Peru
- Black, Irish, Blackfoot
- Cherokee, English, French, Scottish, Irish, German, Swiss, Nordic
- Spanish, Mexican
- Portuguese, Spanish, Brazilian
- Indian, German, Dutch, English
- Anglo-Irish, German-Polish
- Scottish, Welsh, English
- Spanish, Scottish, French, Polish, Welsh, Irish
- Irish, Cherokee
- Spanish, Italian, Greek, English, Scottish, Irish, Moroccan
- Indian, Irish, German, English
- German, English, Irish, Dutch
- Spanish, Scottish, Irish, English, Danish, German, French, Ecuadorian, Incan
- Ghanaian, Haitian
- German, Irish, Scottish
- English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, French, Swiss German, Cherokee
- Celts, France, Ireland, England/Wales
- French, Scottish, Cherokee
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Department
It’s that time of year again, the time to celebrate… the freedom to READ!! Banned Books Week is Sept. 25 – Oct. 1, an annual week that highlights the importance of free and open access to information. Yeah, I know we’re also gearing up for Halloween, with fantasies of 5 candy corns, 4 chocolate kisses, 3 tiny monsters, 2 couple costumes and a big ole’ jack-o-latern… well, close enough. Is it not terrifying to think about the possibility that not only could you be told what you have to read (thank you summer and required reading), but that you could also be told what you can’t read?
That may not be quite as terrifying as having dead pets come back from the grave as violent and disturbed zombies, or having a scarred psychopath with claws for fingers chase you in your dreams, but still, it’s scary. Farenheit 451 and Brave New World scary (Have you read them? They’re pretty good, and they’ve also been challenged or banned in an ironic twist). That’s why we have Banned Books Week, the annual event “brings together the entire book community – librarians, booksellers, publishers, journalists, teachers, and readers of all types – in shared support of the freedom to seek, to publish, to read, and to express ideas, even those [that] some consider unorthodox or unpopular,” according to the American Library Association (ALA).
This week encourages people to look at some of the efforts that have been taken across the country, including the reasoning behind those efforts, to remove or restrict access to books. This draws national attention to the harms of censorship, and the infringement on intellectual freedom. The ALA really says it best, so take a look at an excerpt from their website:
What Is Intellectual Freedom?
Intellectual freedom is the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored… Intellectual freedom is the basis for our democratic system. We expect our people to be self-governors. But to do so responsibly, our citizenry must be well-informed. Libraries provide the ideas and information, in a variety of formats, to allow people to inform themselves. Intellectual freedom encompasses the freedom to hold, receive and disseminate ideas.
What Is Censorship?
Censorship is the suppression of ideas and information that certain persons—individuals, groups or government officials—find objectionable or dangerous. It is no more complicated than someone saying, “Don’t let anyone read this book, or buy that magazine, or view that film, because I object to it! ” Censors try to use the power of the state to impose their view of what is truthful and appropriate, or offensive and objectionable, on everyone else. Censors pressure public institutions, like libraries, to suppress and remove from public access information they judge inappropriate or dangerous, so that no one else has the chance to read or view the material and make up their own minds about it. The censor wants to prejudge materials for everyone… In most instances, a censor is a sincerely concerned individual who believes that censorship can improve society, protect children, and restore what the censor sees as lost moral values. But under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, each of us has the right to read, view, listen to, and disseminate constitutionally protected ideas, even if a censor finds those ideas offensive.
What Is The Relationship Between Censorship And Intellectual Freedom?
In expressing their opinions and concerns, would-be censors are exercising the same rights librarians seek to protect when they confront censorship. In making their criticisms known, people who object to certain ideas are exercising the same rights as those who created and disseminated the material to which they object. Their rights to voice opinions and try to persuade others to adopt those opinions is protected only if the rights of persons to express ideas they despise are also protected. The rights of both sides must be protected, or neither will survive… Censors might sincerely believe that certain materials are so offensive, or present ideas that are so hateful and destructive to society, that they simply must not see the light of day. Others are worried that younger or weaker people will be badly influenced by bad ideas, and will do bad things as a result. Still others believe that there is a very clear distinction between ideas that are right and morally uplifting, and ideas that are wrong and morally corrupting, and wish to ensure that society has the benefit of their perception. They believe that certain individuals, certain institutions, even society itself, will be endangered if particular ideas are disseminated without restriction. What censors often don’t consider is that, if they succeed in suppressing the ideas they don’t like today, others may use that precedent to suppress the ideas they do like tomorrow.
And just for fun, take a look at the top ten most challenged books of 2015:
- Looking for Alaska, by John Green
Reasons: Offensive language, sexually explicit, and unsuited for age group.
- Fifty Shades of Grey, by E. L. James
Reasons: Sexually explicit, unsuited to age group, and other (“poorly written,” “concerns that a group of teenagers will want to try it”).
- I Am Jazz, by Jessica Herthel and Jazz Jennings
Reasons: Inaccurate, homosexuality, sex education, religious viewpoint, and unsuited for age group.
- Beyond Magenta: Transgender Teens Speak Out, by Susan Kuklin
Reasons: Anti-family, offensive language, homosexuality, sex education, political viewpoint, religious viewpoint, unsuited for age group, and other (“wants to remove from collection to ward off complaints”).
- The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, by Mark Haddon
Reasons: Offensive language, religious viewpoint, unsuited for age group, and other (“profanity and atheism”).
- The Holy Bible
Reasons: Religious viewpoint.
- Fun Home, by Alison Bechdel
Reasons: Violence and other (“graphic images”).
- Habibi, by Craig Thompson
Reasons: Nudity, sexually explicit, and unsuited for age group.
- Nasreen’s Secret School: A True Story from Afghanistan, by Jeanette Winter
Reasons: Religious viewpoint, unsuited to age group, and violence.
- Two Boys Kissing, by David Levithan
Reasons: Homosexuality and other (“condones public displays of affection”).
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Department
Mare Barrow’s world is divided by blood—those with common, Red blood serve the Silver- blooded elite, who are gifted with superhuman abilities. Mare is a Red, scraping by as a thief in a poor, rural village, until a twist of fate throws her in front of the Silver court. Before the king, princes, and all the nobles, she discovers she has an ability of her own.
To cover up this impossibility, the king forces her to play the role of a lost Silver and betroths her to one of his own sons. As Mare is drawn further into the Silver world, she risks everything and uses her new position to help the Scarlet Guard—a growing Red rebellion—even as her heart tugs her in an impossible direction. One wrong move can lead to her death, but in the dangerous game she plays, the only certainty is betrayal.
I actually enjoyed this book despite the numerous YA novel cliches that it invokes. Yes, there is an oppressive government, the main character is one of the oppressed and discovers she’s “special”, she becomes part of the revolution, and there is a love triangle. However, this typical story is made more interesting when the oppressive group are armed with superpowers, such as super-strength, super-speed, telepathy and various abilities to manipulate metal, plants, fire, water, animals, ect., which makes it much more difficult for the oppressed to fight back. Unfortunately, the characters are a little predictable and flat, with the main character acting inconsistent and thoughtless, but the revolution and the rebel’s plans make it much more interesting. When battling against a superhuman group, sometimes dark and violent decisions have to be made.
Overall, it feels like a typical YA government oppression book, but it saves itself with a ruthless rebellion and superpowers. These two aspects add an edge that heightens the tension and danger in the book and makes the reader want to discover what happened. My hope is that the rest of the trilogy focuses on darkness of the rebellion instead of the romance or the drama between characters.
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Department
Melanie is a very special girl. Dr. Caldwell calls her “our little genius.” Every morning, Melanie waits in her cell to be collected for class. When they come for her, Sergeant keeps his gun pointing at her while two of his people strap her into the wheelchair. She thinks they don’t like her. She jokes that she won’t bite, but they don’t laugh.
Filled with well-drawn characters and a future that will make you think, this book was engaging. The setting may be an apocalyptic future where small bands of people are gathered in fortified bases to keep out the “hungries,” but the book really isn’t about the action, or the fight like most apocalyptic books. It’s about a group of people trying to survive in a world that’s collapsed. The character’s are the core of the book and are what draw the reader in, although that does mean that the pace can drag a little. There’s Melanie, a strangely intelligent feral child that just wants love and acceptance, Ms. Justineau, Melanie’s teacher whose affection and compassion for her students causes her pain, Sergeant Ed Parks, a good man who is suspicious of the feral children, and Dr. Caldwell, who will do whatever it takes to save the world no matter the consequences.
There were several big twists in the book that didn’t really come as a surprise, such as why Melanie is strapped to a chair for class, but that really didn’t bother me. There was a predictable science based logic, and I really enjoyed that adherence to logic. The world Carey created made sense and felt like this apocalyptic future could be a possibility. However, even though it can be a little predictable, the ending took me by surprise, although in hindsight, I should have expected it.
This was a really intriguing book with a realistically built world, rounded empathetic characters, and an ability to make a person think about hard questions and the future.
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Department
A few days ago, I was having a relaxing night watching the Fellowship of the Rings and eating dinner, when I had a sudden revelation about the beginning of the movie. When (spoiler alert!) Gandalf realizes that the Ring left to Frodo might be a dangerous and evil object, what’s the first thing he does? He rides through the night, straight to the LIBRARY! Gandalf went to the library to save the world and fight evil. I know, technically, he went to an archive where they preserve all of the important historical documents, but it’s still a library.
In all these wonderful fictional stories, I know that information from a library has saved the world, but that made me start wondering, what about the librarians who saved the world (because we all know that real librarians are awesome every day, right?). So in honor of National Library Week, here are six librarians who saved the world, and just so you know, past this point are a lot of spoilers. BEWARE!
6. ZOE HERIOT
For those of you who are familiar with one of the longest running sci-fi series, Doctor Who, Zoe was one of the companions to the Second Doctor from 1968-1969. She is first introduced to the Doctor while working as a librarian on a 21st century space station. She had a photographic memory and was incredibly smart, especially in mathematics, so basically she’s a complex human calculator. On her most intense adventure with the Doctor, her skills and intellect are instrumental in calculating an explosive chain reaction to destroy enemy ships to stop the Cybermen invasion.
5. REX LIBRIS
Rex is the main character in a science fiction/humor comic book. Everyone knows him as the head Librarian at the Middleton Public Library, but what they don’t know is that he is actually over a thousand years old and was the original librarian at the Library of Alexandria. As a member of the Ordo Biblioteca (a secret international society of librarians), and with the ancient Egyptian god Thoth, Rex travels to the farthest reaches to fight the powers of darkness and ignorance, as well as to collect late book fees.
4. EVELYN (Evie) CARNAHAN
Evie could read and write Ancient Egyptian, decipher hieroglyphics and hieratic, and was the only person within a thousand miles who could properly code and catalog the library where she worked. Although she was surrounded by more action inclined individuals (an adventurer mother, an explorer father, a treasure-hunting brother, married to a gunslinger and close friends with a Medjai warrior), she was proud to be a librarian. And rightly so, because the first time she encountered a resurrected mummy, it was her knowledge and research ability that allowed her to strip the cursed mummy of his supernatural abilities.
3. RUPERT (Ripper) GILES
Buffy the vampire slayer’s long-suffering mentor may have seemed like a mild mannered librarian when first introduced. However, as the series continued, it was revealed that he was a wild and dangerous teenager who ended up knee-deep in dark magic, and that magical dabbling ended up costing a friend’s life. While he helped save the world many times with his reference and research skills, he would show that his dark past left him capable of making difficult and morally-questionably decisions to protect not only the world, but those that he loves.
2. BARBARA GORDON
Barbara Gordon was a librarian at the Gotham Public Library, and you might also know her as BATGIRL, or ORACLE. As a crime fighter information was her true weapon, along with her ability to kick butt. She had a near flawless memory and was a computer expert, and after her spine was broken, she continued to fight crime by acting as a information broker for superheroes (and later operates as the leader of a full team of female crimefighters). She had no superpowers, like Batman himself, and yet she was able to protect from and defeat villains who did.
1. FLYNN CARSEN
The main reason I gave Flynn the top spot is because his title is The Librarian. Flynn is the guardian of a secret collection of magical artifacts at the Metropolitan Public Library. Originally he was a somewhat lost but insanely intelligent individual (by the time he was 31 he had 22 academic degrees) and it wasn’t until one of his professors kicked him out of college that he stumbled on his librarian career. Unlike most librarians, however, he travels the world searching for dangerous artifacts and defeating those who would use those artifacts to harm others. He saved the world with his intellect, knowledge, and the fencing skills he learned from the sword Excalibur from artifacts like the Judas Chalice, the Spear of Destiny, and King Solomon’s Mines. Also, he now has apprentice librarians who have their own TV series and save the world on a weekly basis.
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Department
When your best friend, when your ONLY friend, is dying, what else are you supposed to do other than make a wish for him to get better. So when Lottie finds a strange girl in her bedroom offering to take her to medicine that can cure anything, Lottie follows. She follows down through the roots of an apple tree into another world filled with magic, adventure, treachery, and the chance to save her best friend.
This debut novel contains a charm reminiscent of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. It’s a fun surprising adventure about the realities and importance of friendship, with a little magic thrown in. The beginning is a bit heavy in descriptions that slow the pacing, and the author can get caught up in metaphors. However, Ormsbee has painted a world for us, and the writing is lush and vivid, and matches the “taste” of the story. The cast of characters are endearing, and well-rounded with each trying to work through issues (Lottie has to break through her innocent self-absorption, Oliver is painfully shy, etc.), and they complement each other as a whole. The ending perfectly sets up for a continuation of this story without leaving the reader on a cliff. Overall, it’s an optimistic, fun, magical book that I think older children, and adults, will all love. I hope there will be more.
Being Released April 2015
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Librarian
We all love It’s The Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown, but were you aware that the first Jack O’Lanterns were carved out of turnips?
Did you know that the horrifying mask worn by Michael Myers in the Halloween movie was actually a William Shatner Star Trek mask?
Halloween is the second highest grossing commercial holiday after Christmas. The National Retail Federation (NRF) predicts Halloween spending this year—including candy, costumes, and decorations—will hit $7.4 billion. Candy will account for more than $2 billion of that amount and a quarter of all candy bought in the U.S. is for Halloween.
But what are the origins of this creepy holiday? Here’s what we do know about the history of Halloween: it wasn’t created by the Candy Companies, although they’ve certainly profited, nor was it created by the toilet paper companies (though I do wonder how much money they make with all the teepeeing).
The history of Halloween is a rather vague and confusing tale, mainly because no one can seem to agree on how Halloween evolved from a harvest pagan New Year celebration, to the candy gorging and anything goes costumes of today. One thing that everyone seems to agree on, even though there has never been a proven connection, is that modern Halloween begins with the Celtic festival of Samhain (although, they don’t know much about that either).
Scholars are pretty sure that Samhain was an annual celebration of the end of the harvest months to honor the Celtic deities (as well little green leprechauns and tricky fairies). It was also a time to gather resources and slaughter livestock (or maybe they were sacrifices – who knows) in preparation for the upcoming winter months. Some say it was the Celtic New Year. It was also believed that this was the day that the veil between the dead and living was thinnest, and the dead could cross over. They would celebrate this day with bonfires, food laid out for the dead, and costumes to blend with the spirits. Strangely enough, they’re not sure whether these actions were to honor and welcome the dead or to ward off the visiting spirits. Either way, the dead were a big part of the pagan festival.
The second part of Halloween’s history that seems to be agreed on is the attempted Christianization of a pagan celebration. In the eighth century, Pope Gregory III assigned the Christian feast, All Saints Day, to November 1, as a day was to honor all Christian saints and martyrs. It is generally believed that this edict was meant to cause All Saints Day to replace Samhain. However, instead of killing off the pagan traditions, these two celebrations combined to create All-Hallows Eve. The holiday was no longer about the Celtic deities, or about the Christian Saints. The previously celebrated supernatural creatures were now thought to be evil and the main focus of the holiday was about the wandering dead.
The third fact that seems to be agreed upon is that trick-or-treating came from another two practices that eventually combined. The first is “mumming”, a medieval practice where people would disguise themselves and go door-to-door asking for food in exchange for “tricks” (basically they were putting on shows and clowning around). The second is the practice of leaving out food and offerings for the dead in order to gain favor with them, which is believed to be part of the original Samhain tradition. So basically, we give kids candy in exchange for entertainment, and to satisfy the little goblins that knock on our door.
It’s on the news every night and plastered all over the internet. We can’t turn on the TV without hearing about the thousands of people who have died of the Ebola virus in Africa, the man who died of the virus in Dallas, or the two nurses who became infected while treating him. After being bombarded with news about the Ebola virus, it’s easy to become anxious about how it might affect our lives. Making matters worse, the market is full of self-published books and articles about the virus that play on our fears, but offer little reliable information.
How afraid do we really need to be of the Ebola virus? Before you rush out to buy a Hazmat suit, find out the facts. There’s plenty of good information out there. Here are links to a few helpful resources:
- MedLine Plus is the National Institutes of Health’s website with articles produced by the National Library of Medicine. It offers numerous articles on the Ebola virus, and has several articles written for children, with additional information for parents and teachers. There is also a Spanish-language version of MedLine Plus.
- Health and Wellness Resource Center — This database offers access to carefully compiled and trusted medical reference materials, including nearly 400 health/medical journals, hundreds of pamphlets, health-related videos and articles from 2,200 general interest publications.
- World Health Organization — The WHO has a helpful fact sheet on the Ebola virus.
- The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has compiled a list of information resources related to the outbreak.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website includes the organization’s latest efforts to prevent the spread of the virus in the United States:.
- For more local information, check out the Tennessee Department of Health website. The information on the site is also available in Spanish.
Here are some basic facts about the Ebola Virus that you should be aware of:
- Flu is a bigger threat — Yes, there are vaccines and medicines for the flu, and there aren’t for Ebola. But Ebola is much rarer and harder to catch. Your chances of getting Ebola are almost zero unless you’ve traveled to a place where there’s an outbreak or you’ve been directly exposed to the bodily fluids of someone who has symptoms.
- As with any illness or disease, it is always possible that a person who has been exposed to Ebola virus may choose to travel. If the individual has not developed symptoms they cannot transmit EVD to those around them. If the individual does have symptoms, they should seek immediate medical attention at the first sign they are feeling unwell. This may require either notifying the flight crew or ship crew or, upon arrival at a destination, seeking immediate medical attention. Travellers who show initial symptoms of EVD should be isolated to prevent further transmission. Although the risk to fellow travellers in such a situation is very low, contact tracing is recommended under these circumstances. While travellers should always be vigilant with regard to their health and those around them, the risk of infection for travellers is very low since person-to-person transmission results from direct contact with the body fluids or secretions of an infected patient.
- The virus doesn’t spread through air or by water. You can’t get it just by breathing the same air. The Ebola virus can only be passed through bodily fluids. To infect you, the virus has to go into your body, such as an infected person sneezing in your face. The most infectious are blood, stool, and vomit. Bodily fluids also include breast milk, urine, semen, tears, and saliva. You can also get it from contaminated needles, sheets, soiled clothing, and other objects that have come into contact with infected bodily fluids.
- People with Ebola can’t pass it along until they start to feel sick. It can take 2 to 21 days for symptoms to appear, but it usually happens in just over a week. The first signs — fever, muscle ache, headache, and a sore throat — can look like malaria, typhoid fever, and even the flu. Later symptoms can include vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding inside the body and from the eyes, ears, nose, or mouth.
- Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. The main debilitation of this virus is dehydration, and patients will be given oral rehydration with solutions containing electrolytes or intravenous fluids. There is currently no specific treatment to cure the disease. Some patients will recover with the appropriate medical care.
- People are infectious only as long as their blood and secretions contain the virus. For this reason, infected patients receive close monitoring from medical professionals and receive laboratory tests to ensure the virus is no longer circulating in their systems before they return home. When the medical professionals determine it is okay for the patient to return home, they are no longer infectious and cannot infect anyone else in their communities. Men who have recovered from the illness can still spread the virus to their partner through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery. For this reason, it is important for men to avoid sexual intercourse for at least 7 weeks after recovery or to wear condoms if having sexual intercourse during 7 weeks after recovery. Likewise, women should not breast-feed during that time, in case it’s in their breast milk.
- To help control further spread of the virus, people that are suspected or confirmed to have the disease should be isolated from other patients and treated by health workers using strict infection control precautions.