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Tolkien Reads Day

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

Every year on the Twenty-fifth of March the Tolkien Society holds a Tolkien Read Day. This is the day that marks the climactic moment in Professor Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings. If you know enough to argue the vagaries of converting the Gondorion calendar or the Shire Reckoning into modern Gregorian calendars then you know enough about this already. The focus for this year for the Tolkien Society is “Poetry and Songs in Tolkien’s Fiction”. Although, this is a very interesting topic for many students and fans of Tolkien’s work, I think it lacks appeal to the general reader. You can get too focused on the minutia of the true devotee’s passion and miss a chance to spread something you love to other readers, young and old alike.

My own journey through Middle Earth started when I was five and my dad started reading me The Hobbit. He really had no idea what he was starting. I’ve spread my love of these books to friends and family over the years. They’ve given me an appreciation for Tolkien’s work as well as many of the things that inspired him. Now it’s my turn to share with all of you the great experience of the depths of Tolkiana but I’m going to break it down for each type of reader.

For Kids:

For those of you who loved the books since the start of the fourth age and now want to pass along your passion to the hobbit girls and elflings in your life as well as those of you who have just refused to grow up, there are some great options. The best is a small beautifully illustrated book of Bilbo’s Last Song. It is a separate work and fairly spoiler free. You may also be interested in the books based on stories that Tolkien wrote for his children. Roverandom and Mr. Bliss are delightful stories that a creative father used to amuse and comfort his children and Tolkien’s collected Letters from Father Christmas are a great seasonal treat. If your children are interested in more of the author himself, there is the Tolkien volume of the classic Who Was… series.  In my opinion, however, nothing can beat just sitting down and reading The Hobbit. It’s a great read for later elementary or middle school readers and also a great story for parents to read to (or with) their kids. Not much of a reading family? Take the unabridged audio on your next car trip. It’s fun, exciting and completely lacking in content that will make you grab at the volume knob.

So you liked the movies:

The movies, while they have their detractors, were good. You’re the person who went to see them because of the hype, but never read the books. The best suggestion for you is to read the books. Yeah, you think you know what happens, and you do have a good amount of general plot, but there is so much more you missed. There are iconic scenes, wonderful characters, and exposition you’ve never even heard of (unless it’s from hearing one of the true believers complaining). Many people, who’ve read the books, read them again and enjoy them just the same as the first time so please give them a try. If however you’re one of those headstrong trailblazers who won’t walk the same path twice there are hundreds of imitators. Many fall utterly short, but there are a few standouts. For younger readers there are the works of Susan Cooper and Lloyd Alexander. Older readers may appreciate Terry Brooks Shannara series, Mercedes Lackey’s Valdemar Saga novels, Juliet Marillier’s Seven Waters trilogy, or Brandon Sanderson’s The Stormlight Archive series.

“I’ve read The Lord of the Rings”:

Tolkien fans are quick to discriminate between what they consider themselves to be and fans of The Lord of the Rings. Liking The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers and Return of the King is not fan boy or fan girl territory, not anymore. Neither is enjoying more of Tolkien’s writing. In the last several years the Tolkien Estate has released many of the Professor’s previously unavailable or unpublished works. It began with The Silmarillion in 1977. This is the history of Bilbo, Gandalf and Aragorn’s world. It’s almost like a Middle Earth Iliad/Bible, and it reads like it. The stories are great, but the language and phraseology can put some readers off. If you like it, Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle Earth will please you as well.  The same can be said for The Children of Hurin and the forthcoming Beren and Luthien, although I have found The Children of Hurin to be easier to read than some of the others. Conversely, you could look at the professor’s more scholarly works like his attempts at interpreting King Arthur and the Nibelung with The Fall of Arthur and The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrun.  There are a few other titles like these that are more obscure, but this should keep you happy for a while.

The Tolkien Fanatic:

This isn’t for the people who memorized the Cirth runes or have a grammatically correct tattoo in Tengwar. It’s for the people who were in the last category and want to make the jump into true fandom. There are two camps here, the purists and the omnivores. For the purists we start with Karen Wynn Fonstad’s Atlas of Middle Earth. For visually oriented fans this is a must. It has maps, paths, climatology and floor plans. It’s mostly conjecture, but well researched conjecture.  Then we have the art books like Realms of Tolkien and Tolkien’s World which feature great artists’ rendition of scenes from Tolkien’s work, or better still The Art of the Lord of the Rings, which features Tolkien’s own drawings and water colors.

For the less discerning, or the more voracious, there are countless encyclopedias and guides, like J.E.A. Tyler’s Tolkien Companion, or books that interpret Tolkien and his works through any number of disciplines like politics with The Hobbit Party.

The must read for everybody here is The History of Middle Earth series. This is a twelve volume set of notes, back story, commentary and alternative takes on the stories you’ve come to love so far. These are not for the faint of heart; they are interesting, but the narrative repeats and is broken up.

The Tolkien Scholar:

This is the post doc of the Tolkien realm. These books are for people who hit fandom and come out the other side truly intellectually curious. You want to know where these books came from, who was the author and where are the roots of Middle Earth. The Story of Kulervo is the most recent item on the list and a work of Tolkien himself, but it is a fragment of a greater work, The Kalevala, the Finnish national epic. Much of Tolkien’s early inspiration came from here. Tolkien also did his own translation of Beowulf and wrote a commentary, The Monster and his Critics. Both are interesting and enlightening but the Seamus Heaney translation of Beowulf is interesting as well. The Prose and Poetic Eddas are fascinating and full of names you will recognize, from Thorin to Gandalf. For more on Tolkien the man you can see any of the wonderful biographies, but I especially recommend Tolkien and the Great War. The Inklings can give you a wonderful look into the friendship and collaboration of Tolkien, C.S. Lewis and others.

Tolkien wrote, “It’s a dangerous business, Frodo, going out your door. You step onto the road, and if you don’t keep your feet, there’s no knowing where you might be swept off to.” The same is true for delving into Tolkien’s writing. You may just nip round the corner or you may start a journey that lasts a lifetime.

Inauguration Day

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

barack_obamas_2013_inaugural_address_at_the_u-s-_capitolSoon we will have another quadrennial celebration of the changing hands of the highest office in the land.  The inauguration is about hope. Yes, hope. Regardless of your political beliefs, we watch the events of a new presidency with hope of one kind or another. We hope the new person won’t make the mistakes of the old. We hope that our opinions will now be considered and valued. We hope this guy doesn’t screw up. We hope four years go by quickly and uneventfully. They’re all hope, some positive, some negative, but hope all the same.

This new beginning means that we all have a moment to take some time, look at our present situation as a country and decide if we are where we want to be and what we need to do to get wherever that is. This has been the burden of 43 men on 57 separate occasions. They all stood on a platform in Washington D.C., put their hand on a bible and swore to…wait, none of those things are right. True, this is the image we see when we imagine the inauguration in our mind, but none of those things are actually required for the inaugural process.

Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dallas, Texas.

Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office on Air Force One following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Dallas, Texas.

Washington D.C.

First of all, the inauguration does not have to be in Washington D.C. George Washington was had his first inaugural in New York and his Second in Philadelphia. Adams was also inaugurated in Philly. Two presidents have taken the oath of office in hotels due to the death of the prior president. Two took the oath in their private residences for the same reason. The most recent extraordinary inauguration was that of Lyndon Johnson in 1963 on Air Force One in Dallas.

The Bible

The Swearing and the Bible are not dictated anywhere either and neither is the phrase, “So help me God”. Due to some religions prohibiting members from swearing to anything, the option to affirm the oath was built in to the ceremony. Two presidents are believed to have done so, Hoover and Pierce. We know that Pierce did for certain even though he was an Episcopalian and was not required to avoid swearing. Hoover was a Quaker and it was believed he had used affirm, but news real footage shows he said solemnly swear. The only other Quaker president was Richard Nixon, and he also chose to swear. Theodore Roosevelt did not swear on a bible, and John Quincy Adams and that rebel Franklin Pierce swore on books of law to signify they were swearing by the Constitution.  Finally, George Washington ad libbed the line “so help me god” and most presidents have followed suit. It is the proscribed thing to complete an oath for federal judiciary members, but there is nothing in the presidential oath that requires it.

The Inauguration Address

washingtons_inauguration_at_philadelphia_cph-3g12011

The second inauguration of George Washington as President of the United States took place in the Senate Chamber of Congress Hall in Philadelphia on March 4, 1793.

The shortest inauguration address on record was Washington’s second address at one hundred and thirty-five words.

                Fellow Citizens:

I am again called upon by the voice of my country to execute the functions of its Chief Magistrate. When the occasion proper for it shall arrive, I shall endeavor to express the high sense I entertain of this distinguished honor, and of the confidence which has been reposed in me by the people of united America.

Previous to the execution of any official act of the President the Constitution requires an oath of office. This oath I am now about to take, and in your presence: That if it shall be found during my administration of the Government I have in any instance violated willingly or knowingly the injunctions thereof, I may (besides incurring constitutional punishment) be subject to the upbraidings of all who are now witnesses of the present solemn ceremony.

Not exactly, “Here we go again” but short sweet and to the point. Washington’s brevity seems to be a skill many politicians these days lack. William Henry Harrison should have followed Washington’s lead. His inaugural address was the longest so far and went on for 8445 words. Many people believe this lengthy speech, combined with the cool temperatures and cold wind contributed to the cold, then pneumonia, then pleurisy and eventual death of President Harrison. He died one month later and though he had the longest address, he had the shortest presidency.

The Twentieth of January

Franklin D. Roosevelt's First Inauguration

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inauguration

Weather was the original reason why most of the early presidents were inaugurated in March. Obviously those brought up from vice president to take the place of a deceased commander in chief weren’t given the option, but Washington Himself was inaugurated in April. The Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution changed the date to the Twentieth of January. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was both the last to be inaugurated in March and the first to do so in January. Regardless of the change in date, the warmest and coldest inaugurations have occurred in the January era. President Reagan had the warmest inauguration in 1981 at 55° and the coldest, 7°, for his second in 1985

The Oath

There have been a few issues with the oath over the years as well. Chief Justice Fuller accidentally replaced the word protect with maintain in regards to the constitution when administering the oath to Taft. Ironically, Taft did the same at Hoover’s inauguration when he, Taft, was chief justice. Chief Justice Stone replaced Harry Truman’s stand-alone middle initial with the name Shipp, one of Truman’s grandfathers’ last name, but Truman just rolled with it and said Harry S. Truman anyway. Finally Barak Obama waited for Justice Rogers to realize a gaff when he put faithfully in the wrong place when reciting the oath. Rogers moved the term but still had it wrong. Rogers and Obama completed the Oath properly in the Oval Office the next day.

All these little bits of trivia notwithstanding, we can observe this inauguration in which ever spirit we choose, be it happy, sad, skeptical or hopeful. However there will be people looking for mistakes or records, swearing or affirming and what the temperature was to add this fifty-eighth inaugural to the history books.

New Year Reading Challenge

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

presentation1Every year countless people create lists of things they never actually intend to do. Well…that’s a bit unfair. They enter into these lists of resolutions for the New Year with all the hope and enthusiasm that a new beginning can impart. Realistically though, many of us can barely remember what we resolved to do by the time we get to May and have failed to follow through on those resolutions to any significant degree. So while we are thinking about what we want to lose, give up, start doing or ramp up let us all take a moment to try to add something fun to our list with a book challenge. (And yes, a book challenge is fun; this is a library’s blog for pity’s sake!)

Reading is a great deal more than a past time. Slipping into the world of a new book brings you so many benefits that this resolution may be on par with exercising more or quitting smoking. Reading exercises your mind, keeps it limber and increases the memory. A National Academy of Sciences study has shown that people who read regularly are two and a half times less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease[i]. It has also been shown that reading literary fiction helps increase your ability to empathize with others[ii]. Who doesn’t need to improve their empathy skills? Some books can even lower blood pressure and reduce stress[iii] and help stave off symptoms of mild mental disorders[iv]. Also, you gain new knowledge. Think of all the things you can learn and combine this with the improved vocabulary and increased attention span readers develop. These are real benefits to other parts of your life. Go for it!

Take this list of suggestions and challenge yourself to read more, or step outside of your comfort genre. Here is a list of twenty-six challenges, one book for every two weeks.

  1. Try a book outside of your usual genres.book-1705946_960_720
  2. Read a book your mother would love.
  3. Read a book your mother would hate.
  4. Pick a color at random and read a book with that color cover.
  5. Find a book with a song title or lyric for a title.
  6. Choose a book to read with a friend.
  7. Read one that they choose.
  8. Re-read your favorite book from childhood.
  9. Read something with your family, with everyone taking a chapter in turn.
  10. Read something from an author that you’ve never heard of before.
  11. Read a book about your guilty pleasure, something you’d never admit to reading.
  12. Find an aisle in the library you’ve never gotten something from and choose a book from there.
  13. Get a book from the young adult section. You’ll be surprised how enjoyable they can be.
  14. Try a book that discusses your religious beliefs or lack thereof.
  15. Try one that discusses someone else’s.
  16. Find a book about or set in your favorite part of history.
  17. Read a collection of short stories or novellas from a single author.
  18. Read a book that is related to a movie or television show you enjoy.
  19. Read a literary journal i.e. The New York Times Book Review, Publishers Weekly, etc.
  20. Pick a book from that journal and read that.
  21. Read a magazine from the month and year you were born, cover to cover.
  22. Read a book you read or were supposed to read in high school or university.
  23. Read a graphic novel. They’re not just comic books anymore.
  24. Read an eBook.
  25. Read a book based on the recommendation of a stranger.
  26. Pick your favorite book that you’ve read from this list and read more about it. If it’s Fiction find a non-fiction book related to it. If it’s non-fiction find a fiction book that contains elements of it.

If you’re ambitious try them all, less so, pick and choose. Set your limit where you are comfortable and maybe this year, this will be a resolution you keep.

 


Rudyard Kipling: Extreme Traveler

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

225px-rudyard_kipling_portraitRudyard Kipling, the name brings up so many different connotations, depending on how old you are. If you’re an octogenarian you may have grown up on his adventure stories. Those of you who were children of the sixties, now in your sixties yourself, may remember him as another colonialist apologist whose inclusion in your curriculum was something to fight against. If you happen to be of the eighties then the strongest connection you may have is through the cub scouts where terms like akela and law of the pack proliferate. Finally, for grade school kids, he is the guy that wrote that movie they liked so much last year. So who is the real Kipling? He is all of these things and more, including a man who couldn’t stay in place until he was in his 40’s (which was especially impressive considering that travel during that time period was quite a long undertaking).

Kipling was named after a popular lake in Staffordshire, England where his parents had met and often visited, but he was a true child of empire. He was born at the end of December, 1865 in Bombay (now called Mumbai). His father, John Lockwood Kipling, was a teacher and later principal there before moving 900 miles north to head another school in Lahore. The elder Kipling was an artist of some renown, having contributed designs to the Victoria and Albert Museum and other well-known buildings of the time as well as illustrations for his son’s books. Rudyard’s mother Alice (nee MacDonald) ran her husband’s household and did her best to help advance his career, but she also wrote and published poems, was musical and sewed.

Young Ruddy spent his first five years in Bombay with his parents before he and his younger sister Trix, then three, were sent to live and go to school in England (big move #1). Kipling refers to this time very darkly and was unhappy. After it had been determined he was not educationally suited for Oxford he returned to India (actually, what is now Pakistan) to work for a newspaper in Lahore where his father was now head of a new Art School (big move #2). It was during his time with the Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore that his stories became known to others. An open minded editor allowed for more creative freedom and thus Kipling published thirty-nine stories through his newspaper. In late 1887 he transferred to a sister newspaper, The Pioneer, in Allahabad where he would publish 41 more stories (big move #3). After a dispute with The Pioneer he was sacked and decided to return to England, via Asia and North America (big move #4, via the scenic route). He traveled to San Francisco via Rangoon, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Japan, and before traveling extensively through the United States and Canada.

Kipling's England: A map of England showing Kipling's homes.

Kipling’s England: A map of England showing Kipling’s homes.

Upon his return to Britain, he continued writing and had a nervous breakdown. After recovering, he acquired a new publishing agent, Wolcott Balestier. It was through Wolcott that he met Caroline, called Carrie, Balestier’s sister. While traveling (visiting South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and once again India), Kipling heard of Wolcott’s untimely death and proposed to Carrie by telegram. They were married in 1892.  For a while, the Kiplings lived in the United States (big move #5) and it was here that many of his most famous works were written; Captain’s Courageous, Gunga Din and the Jungle Book. It was also here that his two daughters were born and where the older, Josephine died. After several years in new England near his wife’s family, the couple decided to return to England (final big move #6, even though he moved again within England).

It was in England that John, known as Jack, was born. Kipling continued to write and publish, and two of his works form this period, including White Man’s Burden, provide a great deal of fodder for his critics. Nonetheless, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907, the first English language author to do so. He continued to travel (mostly to South Africa) and wrote Kim at this time as well.

Lt John Kipling.

Lt John Kipling.

Seven Years later a great tragedy befell the Kiplings. With the start of World War I, their eighteen year old son Jack wanted to enlist in the Navy and once refused, the army. He was kept from doing so by poor eyesight. Rudyard, ever the patriotic Briton, called in a favor and got his son posted to the Irish Guards as an officer. Sadly, like so many young men of that time he was killed in trenches, during the Battle of Loos. His body was not identified until 1992. The loss of Jack affected Kipling. His patriotism dimmed and he began to work with the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, the organization that maintains the overseas graves of British Commonwealth military personnel. He did continue to write for the next twenty years. He finally passed away January the Eighteenth, 1936.

In his time Kipling was considered a great writer and thinker, but his work has been up and down since then. Many literary scholars find his stance of imperialism to be, at best, an unfortunate relic of his time and place, and at worst, uncaring racial and regional superiority. Orwell admired his ability but decried his message. Many universities removed him from curriculum due to protests in the 1960s. In the field of children’s literature however he has remained, fairly consistently, well regarded. His Jungle Book and Just So Stories have been favorites for generations and have been adapted many times for film, stage and television. His work, the Jungle Book in particular provided a structure for the new junior division of Boy Scouts Kipling’s good friend Robert Baden Powell created in 1916. Laws of the pack, Akela and Baloo are terms familiar to many people who have gone through the cub programs in many countries. While he still carries a whiff of imperialist dogma around with him, many modern scholars choose to look at him as a window to a time outside of our experience.

 


Fiction

jungle_book_1894_138

The cover of The Jungle Book first edition, 1894.

  • Kipling stories; twenty-eight exciting tales by John Beecroft (F KIP)
  • Rudyard Kipling’s tales of horror & fantasy by Rudyard Kipling (F KIP)
  • Kim by Rudyard Kipling (F KIP)
  • Captains Courageous by Rudyard Kipling (F KIP)
  • The mark of the beast, and other horror tales by Rudyard Kipling (F KIP)
  • The Man Who Would be King by Rudyard Kipling (F KIP)

Non-Fiction

  • Rudyard Kipling: A Life by Harry Ricketts (92 KIP)
  • The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling by Angus Wilson (92 KIP)
  • A Circle of Sisters by Judith Flanders (920.720941 FLA)
  • Kipling: A Selection of His Stories and Poems Vols. I and II by Rudyard Kipling (823 KIP)

DVD

  • The Jungle Book, 1967 (J DVD JUNGLE)
  • The Jungle Book, 2016 (J DVD JUNGLE)
  • Captains Courageous (DVD CAPTAINS)
  • Gunga Din (DVD Gunga)
  • My Boy Jack (DVD MY)

(Informed) Decision 2016: Part 3

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

It’s an election year again and whether you’re thrilled with your presidential options or depressed by the slate of candidates, someone needs to be elected and it’s our civic duty to elect them. Everyone needs to get out and vote, not just this election but every election. If you need to register to vote you can get an application from the Williamson County Election Commission, from your LOCAL PUBLIC LIBRARY or just click here and print one. The deadline to register to vote in the November elections is Oct. 11.

If you’re new to voting or an old pro there’s no need to go into that voting booth uninformed. This is my Joe Friday, “Just the facts, Ma’am” review of the candidates for president in this year’s election. The information is coming from the web sites[i] and first person writings of the candidates themselves and their parties[ii]. The issues chosen to be presented here are the top ten issues relevant to electors as determined by the Pew Research Center in July of 2016.[iii] There is no attempt to influence anyone in a particular direction and no bias is intentional. While there are many other parties running I am only including those candidates who are on the ballot in enough states to gain the necessary 270 Electoral College votes to win the election (presented in alphabetical order to avoid hints of bias)[iv].

The Republicans

Trump/Pence

donald_trump_by_gage_skidmore_10Donald Trump was born in Queens, New York, in 1946. He attended the Kew-Forest School for several years before moving to the New York Military Academy. After graduating as a captain from NYMA he began studying at Fordham University in the Bronx before he transferred to the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science in economics in 1968. He began working at his father and grandmother’s real estate company, Elizabeth Trump and Son, while still in college. Three years after graduating he was given control of the company and changed the name to the Trump Organization. Since then he has expanded from his role as a real estate speculator and developer to add sports owner, entertainment promoter, and television personality to his resume.

mike_pence_official_portrait_112th_congressMike Pence was born in Columbus, Indiana, in 1959. After graduating from Columbus North High School he went on to Hanover College, where he received a Bachelor of Arts in History in 1981. He then went on to the School of Law at Indiana University where he received his Juris Doctor. After working in private practice he unsuccessfully ran for Congress in 1988 and 1990. In 1991, he became the president of a think tank called the Indiana Policy Review Foundation and a member of the State Policy Network but left in 1994 to host conservative political radio shows. In 2000 a third run for Congress was successful and Mr. Pence took over the seat for the Second Congressional District (now renumbered the sixth district) of Indiana. He remained in Congress until 2012, even declining to run for one of Indiana’s Senate seats in 2010. During these terms he was elected to the third-highest-ranking Republican leadership position, the Republican Conference Chairman. He left Washington in 2012 to run for Governor of Indiana, the post he currently holds. He abandoned his gubernatorial re-election campaign to accept his nomination as Republican Vice Presidential candidate.

Positions:

Economy: Mr. Trump intends to create 25 million new jobs by increasing the GDP by 1.5%. He also plans to reform taxes and trade agreements to fit an America first ideal and boost growth to 3.5-4%

Terrorism: The Trump campaign wants to establish new screening procedures to keep terrorists out of the United States, temporarily halt immigration from the states where terrorism is most prevalent, and “establish a Commission on Radical Islam to identify and explain to the American public the core convictions and beliefs of Radical Islam, to identify the warning signs of radicalization, and to expose the networks in our society that support radicalization.”

Foreign Policy: Trump believes that our foreign policy should be built around a core of peace through strength.  Our current strategy needs to end and we need to rebuild our military all the while advancing American national interests and lessening tensions through more stability in the world.

Health Care: Trump/Pence supports the repeal of Obamacare, working with Congress to create a new health care system,  allowing people to purchase health care in any state to allow for more competition and allowing states to tailor their own Medicare plans to meet the local need.

Gun Policy: Trump is a strong supporter of the Second Amendment and does not believe that the right to keep and bear arms should be modified. He does, however, support enforcing the current laws more stringently and bringing back programs where illegal possession would be a federal crime with a mandatory five-year sentence.

Immigration: The Trump campaign wants to promote a legal system of immigration that keeps incoming populace at a percentage within statistical norms. He intends to do this by selecting immigrants who have the best chance of success in the U.S.

Social Security: The Republican Party believes that no option for saving Social Security should be discarded, including privatization.

Education: Mr. Trump believes in school choice, allowing students to choose the public or private school they want to attend and repurposing federal funding to allow this. He also believes higher education needs to look at reducing college expenses.

Supreme Court Appointments: Trump has stated that he intends to replace Justice Scalia with a person of comparable political stance and opinions.

Treatment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities: The Republican party decries discrimination in any form.


Sources & Notes:

[i] https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/, http://www.jill2016.com/plan, https://www.johnsonweld.com/issues & https://www.donaldjtrump.com/issues/

[ii] https://www.democrats.org/party-platform, http://www.gp.org/platform, https://www.lp.org/platform & https://www.gop.com/the-2016-republican-party-platform/

[iii] http://www.people-press.org/2016/07/07/4-top-voting-issues-in-2016-election/

[iv] All website information was retrieved between 10 September and 1 October 2016.

(Informed) Decision 2016: Part 2

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

It’s an election year again and whether you’re thrilled with your presidential options or depressed by the slate of candidates, someone needs to be elected and it’s our civic duty to elect them. Everyone needs to get out and vote, not just this election but every election. If you need to register to vote you can get an application from the Williamson County Election Commission, from your LOCAL PUBLIC LIBRARY or just click here and print one. The deadline to register to vote in the November elections is Oct. 11.

If you’re new to voting or an old pro there’s no need to go into that voting booth uninformed. This is my Joe Friday, “Just the facts, Ma’am” review of the candidates for president in this year’s election. The information is coming from the web sites[i] and first person writings of the candidates themselves and their parties[ii]. The issues chosen to be presented here are the top ten issues relevant to electors as determined by the Pew Research Center in July of 2016.[iii] There is no attempt to influence anyone in a particular direction and no bias is intentional. While there are many other parties running I am only including those candidates who are on the ballot in enough states to gain the necessary 270 Electoral College votes to win the election (presented in alphabetical order to avoid hints of bias)[iv].

The Green Party

Stein/Baraka

jill_stein_by_gage_skidmoreJill Stein was born in 1950 and raised in the Chicago area. Stein did her undergraduate studies at Harvard, where she graduated Magna Cum Laude in 1973. She continued at Harvard, attending their medical school, where she would later teach. As a physician she specialized in internal medicine. Her connection to politics came when she became interested in environmental concerns and how they were affecting her patients. Since 1998, she has served on the board of the Greater Boston chapter of Physicians for Social Responsibility and co-founded the Massachusetts Coalition for Healthy Communities in 2003. She was elected to two terms of the Lexington Town Meeting and has run for Governor of Massachusetts twice, in 2002 and 2010, State House member in 2004, and Secretary of the Commonwealth in 2006. She was the Green Party candidate for President in 2012.

static1-squarespace-comAjamu Baraka was born in Chicago in 1953. After serving in the U.S. Army in Vietnam he attended Clark Atlanta University. While there he became involved with political activism. He has served on the boards of Amnesty International, the Center for Constitutional Rights, and Africa Action. He was the founding executive director of the United States Human Rights Network. In 1998 Baraka was honored by then-United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan for his years of human rights work. Before his nomination he was an Associate Fellow at the Institute for Policy Studies.

Positions:

Economy: The Stein campaign suggests paying a livable wage, tax reform, economic assistance for local communities and small businesses to help the economy.

Terrorism: The Greens plan to freeze the bank accounts of countries that are funding terrorism, including the Saudi royal family.

Foreign Policy: Stein’s foreign policy is one of peace and disarmament, working on Middle East peace settlement, and reforming the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank (WB) to end exploitation of labor.

Health Care: The Green Party believes in treating health care as a right, and plans to expand Medicare to cover all Americans.

Gun Policy: no stated position

Immigration: Supporting immigrants’ rights, creating a welcoming path to citizenship for immigrants, and halting deportations and detentions of law-abiding undocumented immigrants are all parts of the Green Party plans for immigration.

Social Security: Stein opposes the privatization of Social Security.

Education: Similar to their health care beliefs, Stein/Baraka believes in treating education as a right, including preschools and universities.

Supreme Court Appointments: Dr. Stein disagreed with the decision to not vote on a replacement for Justice Scalia.

Treatment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Ensuring equal pay for equal work, ending discrimination based on race, gender, or generation, ending police brutality and mass incarceration and institutional racism within our justice system, and supporting the Black Lives Matter Movement are all parts of the Green plan for race and ethnic tensions.

 


The Libertarians

Johnson/Weld

gary_johnsonGary Johnson was born in Minot, North Dakota, on the first of January 1953. Later in his childhood the family moved to New Mexico where he graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque. From there he attended the University of New Mexico, where he earned a Bachelor of Science in political science. It was while he was at school that he began his career as an entrepreneur, working as a door-to-door handyman.  After school he took his know-how and formed a construction company. It started as a one man operation and became one of the leading construction companies in the state. In 1994 he entered politics and ran for Governor of New Mexico on the Republican ticket. He won that election and the succeeding one in 1998. Since leaving the governorship he has served on the Advisory Council of Students for Sensible Drug Policy and on the board of directors of Students for Liberty. He has run for president before, in 2012, on the Libertarian ticket.avatar-jpg-320x320px

William Weld was born into a prominent New England family in 1945. He received a Bachelor of Arts in the classics from Harvard in 1966, studied economics at Oxford and completed his Juris Doctor in 1970 after returning to Harvard. Both times he was at Harvard he graduated Cum Laude.

Positions:

Economy: The Johnson campaign believes in reducing the governmental oversight and regulation of business to allow more competition to create more jobs. They also believe in closing tax loopholes and eventually moving to consumption-based tax rather than an income-based one in order to make taxation help the economy by putting more money in the hands of consumers.

Terrorism: The Libertarian party states that they condemn the use of force, and especially the use of terrorism, against the innocent, regardless of whether such acts are committed by governments or by political or revolutionary groups.

Foreign Policy: The official statement from Mr. Johnson’s website states that he believes our foreign policy is, “To protect us from harm and to allow us to exercise our freedoms.” He also states an intention to remove us from foreign conflicts.

Health Care: The Libertarian stance on health care is that it should be based on a free market allowing Americans to choose all aspects of the personal health plans.

Gun Policy: The Libertarian policy has opposed all laws at any level of government restricting, registering, or monitoring the ownership, manufacture, or transfer of firearms or ammunition.

Immigration: Johnson states that we should focus on creating a more efficient system of providing work visas, conducting background checks, and incentivizing non-citizens to pay their taxes, obtain proof of employment, and otherwise assimilate with our diverse society.

Social Security: It is a belief of the Libertarian party that the Social Security system should be phased out and replaced by a voluntary, private system for retirement savings.

Education: The Johnson/Weld campaign stands for a return of control of educational standards to the state and local governments, and eliminating Common Core and the Department of Education.

Supreme Court Appointments: Johnson has stated that he’d appoint originalists to the Court (in the context of United States constitutional interpretation, originalism is a principle of interpretation that views the Constitution’s meaning as fixed as of the time of enactment).

Treatment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Libertarians stand against discrimination of any kind but do not believe in the imposition of regulation to enforce antidiscrimination. The Johnson campaign also believes that a change in drug laws will help reform a justice system that unfairly deals with minorities.


Sources & Notes:

[i] https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/, http://www.jill2016.com/plan, https://www.johnsonweld.com/issues & https://www.donaldjtrump.com/issues/

[ii] https://www.democrats.org/party-platform, http://www.gp.org/platform, https://www.lp.org/platform & https://www.gop.com/the-2016-republican-party-platform/

[iii] http://www.people-press.org/2016/07/07/4-top-voting-issues-in-2016-election/

[iv] All website information was retrieved between 10 September and 1 October 2016.

(Informed) Decision 2016: Part 1

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

It’s an election year again and whether you’re thrilled with your presidential options or depressed by the slate of candidates, someone needs to be elected and it’s our civic duty to elect them. Everyone needs to get out and vote, not just this election but every election. If you need to register to vote you can get an application from the Williamson County Election Commission, from your LOCAL PUBLIC LIBRARY or just click here and print one. The deadline to register to vote in the November elections is Oct. 11.

If you’re new to voting or an old pro there’s no need to go into that voting booth uninformed. This is my Joe Friday, “Just the facts, Ma’am” review of the candidates for president in this year’s election. The information is coming from the web sites[i] and first person writings of the candidates themselves and their parties[ii]. The issues chosen to be presented here are the top ten issues relevant to electors as determined by the Pew Research Center in July of 2016.[iii] There is no attempt to influence anyone in a particular direction and no bias is intentional. While there are many other parties running I am only including those candidates who are on the ballot in enough states to gain the necessary 270 Electoral College votes to win the election (presented in alphabetical order to avoid hints of bias)[iv].

The Democrats

Clinton/Kaine

hillary_clinton_official_secretary_of_state_portrait_cropHillary Clinton was born in Chicago in 1947. She was educated in the Park Ridge School District where she was a student and athlete and was active in the Brownies and Girl Scouts. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Wellesley where she had been the president of the Young Republicans club. She also received a Juris Doctor degree from Yale. In her youth she worked on many national election campaigns for both political parties, first Republican then Democrat. Her legal career began with a focus on children’s rights before she began working for the House Committee on the Judiciary on the impeachment inquiry staff during the Watergate affair. She moved to Arkansas where she became an employee, then a partner in the Rose Law Firm. For twelve years she was the First Lady of Arkansas followed by eight years as the First lady of the United States. She was the first First Lady to hold an advanced degree.  Throughout this time she maintained a devotion to child advocacy. Clinton successfully campaigned to be the U.S. Senator from New York, a post she held for one-and-a-third terms before being selected for the office of Secretary of State after failing to secure the Democratic nomination for president in 2008.

606px-tim_kaine_official_113th_congress_photo_portraitTim Kaine was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, in 1958 and primarily raised in the Kansas City area. He graduated Summa Cum Laude from the University of Missouri with a Bachelor of Arts in Economics. He went to Harvard Law School and received a Juris Doctor in 1983 after taking a year off to work with Jesuit missionaries in Honduras.  After working as a law clerk for the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit in Macon, Georgia, he went to Richmond to practice law, specializing in fair housing law and discrimination. He taught law at the University of Richmond for several years. He began his political career locally, serving four terms on the city council and two as mayor of Richmond. From 2002-2005, he served as Lieutenant Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia and became Governor from 2006 to 2010. Kaine was the chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 2009 until 2011, when he ran for and won a seat in the U.S. Senate for Virginia in 2012.

Positions:

Economy: Clinton is for gender pay equality and a higher minimum wage, but against reducing public spending to reduce the debt. She is in favor of higher corporate taxes as well as those for real estate sales, stocks and bonds, but against the Trans Pacific Partnership.

Terrorism: She is in favor of working harder to rid Syria and Iraq of ISIS strongholds as well as creating greater cooperation at home and abroad to stop the spread of terror incidents.

Foreign Policy: Clinton and the Democratic Party intend to stand with the international organizations we have already committed ourselves to (i.e., The United Nations, NATO, etc.) and meet countries that pose threats with necessary actions. The main focus is to keep acting on the world stage to maintain our interests abroad.

Health Care: The Democratic Party stands for universal health care, lower prescription drug prices, supporting local health centers, funding medical experimentation, securing reproductive rights, and working on care for autism, addiction and Alzheimer’s.

Gun Policy: Clinton advocates stricter background checks and keeping guns from the severely mentally ill, domestic abusers, violent criminals and people on the no-fly list.

Immigration: While the Democratic campaign supports enforcing the immigration laws humanely, they also stand for comprehensive immigration reform, naturalization and an end to several of the policies affecting families.

Social Security: Clinton is against any privatization or cuts of the social security system.

Education: The most obvious planks in the Clinton platform for education are universal preschool for 4-year-olds, making higher education debt free, and reforming the existing student debt.

Supreme Court Appointments: “I’m looking for people who understand the way the real world works,” Clinton said. “Who don’t have a knee-jerk reaction to support business, to support the idea that you know, money is speech, that gutted the Voting Rights Act.”

Treatment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities: The Clinton campaign has stated they have a commitment to reform the criminal justice system to remove racial prejudice, protect the voting rights of minorities and make sure that minorities no longer face an education/achievement gap.


Sources & Notes:

[i] https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/, http://www.jill2016.com/plan, https://www.johnsonweld.com/issues & https://www.donaldjtrump.com/issues/

[ii] https://www.democrats.org/party-platform, http://www.gp.org/platform, https://www.lp.org/platform & https://www.gop.com/the-2016-republican-party-platform/

[iii] http://www.people-press.org/2016/07/07/4-top-voting-issues-in-2016-election/

[iv] All website information was retrieved between 10 September and 1 October 2016.

London’s Burning!

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

I hear this and immediately think of Joe Strummer howling at the start of the Clash’s song of the same name. While that was about the smoke and exhaust of the metropolitan road systems and gridlock, three hundred and fifty years ago it meant something far different. From the second to the fifth of September, 1666, London did indeed burn. A huge swath of the old medieval city of London, north of the Thames, was nothing but ash.

Great_Fire_London

The great fire of 1666 was not a terrorist plot like the abortive attempt to destroy parliament from sixty some years before with Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder plot. It did not have anything to do with the English Civil War and the return of the monarchy six years prior with the coronation of Charles II. It didn’t even directly tie to the plague outbreak the year prior, although that did lend some contributing factors. No, while Great Britain in the 17th century was a tumultuous place, the fire began in a most mundane way. It started with a stray spark from a bakery oven.

Just after midnight on 2 September 1666, the bakery of Thomas Farriner caught fire. Farriner, baker to King Charles II, lived above the bakery with his three children and a servant. The Family was unable to get to the street but did manage to get into the next house through an upstairs window. The serving woman, terrified by the situation refused and became the first victim of the fire. By the end of the day on Sunday the fire had spread almost half way to the far city wall.

Samuel_Pepys

Samuel Pepys

Samuel Pepys, the noted diarist, lived in the environs of the fire and was able to view it from a tower and from a boat on the river. As a senior official in the Navy Office he was called to the King and reported on what he saw.

“everybody endeavouring to remove their goods, and flinging into the river or bringing them onto lighters that lay off; poor people staying in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and then running into boats, or clambering from one pair of stairs by the water-side to another.”

His report led to the Duke of York, the future James II, and King Charles himself going to the Thames to view the situation. The King ordered all buildings adjacent to the burning to be torn down. The Duke of York offered the life guards to assist in fighting the blaze. It was, however, a bit too late. The fire itself had created a chimney effect. A vacuum existed from the air being heated and pulled up through the fire. This in turn caused more air to rush into the area of the fire close to the ground. Anyone familiar with the principles of a blast furnace will tell you that this is a great recipe for extreme heat. The temperature was so high (approximately 1700°C) that pottery actually melted. From a position across the river, Pepys noticed the “one entire arch of fire from this to the other side of the bridge, and in a bow up the hill for an arch of above a mile long: it made me weep to see it”

Great_fire_of_london_mapOver the following days the fire spread until it was finally contained and on Tuesday and brought to an end the following day. Gunpowder was used for wholesale destruction of houses to create fire breaks. That and the dying down of what had been a very stiff east wind finally allowed for control and an extinguishing. The damage included the destruction of 13,500 houses, 87 parish churches, and 44 Company (guild) Halls and the final total was accessed at £10,000,000 (more than a billion pounds in today’s money) Only eight people were reported to have died but this number is heavily suspect because the temperatures reached would have melted steel and certainly would have cremated the remains of any of London’s poor unfortunate enough to not be reported missing.

Why the fire happened was an interesting thing. At first foreigners and papists were blamed. This was proven false, but the prejudice lasted for many years. Because the fire started on Pudding Lane and ended at Pye corner, many people suggested the fire was God’s punishment for the gluttony of the city. In actuality it was a combination of cheap buildings, poor design and planning, and poor management on the account of the Lord Mayor. Buildings in London were supposed to have been made of stone to prevent just such a thing. Stone was too costly and everyone went to wood as the next best choice. Also, in order to maximize available space, each successive floor was slightly larger than the ground level floor, jutting out over the street. The close proximity of such dwellings caused the fire to spread very rapidly. Finally, Lord Mayor Sir Thomas Bloodworth refused to act. Within an hour of the start he was called to Pudding Lane and asked to give the order to demolish surrounding houses to form a break. He declined initially and eventually left the scene, but not before declining the help of the Lifeguards and untruly telling representatives of the king demolitions were under way. That did not actually start until well into Monday.17thcenFirefighting

The Great Fire of London changed the face of London. The rebuilding was similar to the prior plan and avoided the radical changes suggested by some like John Evelyn, but there were still changes. Regulations to avoid fire were more strictly enforced and fire companies better trained. To this day you can still see the monuments, the Great Fire monument near the start and the Golden boy of Pye where it finally was brought to a halt.

 


You can learn more about the 1666 Great Fire of London at the library:

  • The Great Fire of London by Pam Robson (J 942.1 ROB)
  • Fire Cat by Pippa Goodhart (J E GOO)
  • By Permission of Heaven: The Story of the Great Fire of London by Adrian Tinniswood (942.1 TIN)
  • The Great Fire of London by Stephen Porter (942.1066 POR)
  • The Mammoth Book of How it Happened in Britain by Jon E. Lewis (eBook through TotalBoox)
  • In Ashes Lie by Marie Brennan (F BRE)

The Long Awaited Next Potter Story

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

Very soon we will get a new Potter story. No one expected it and it has been long hoped for. We can now finally get more information on what happened to our favorite characters. Never again will we have to wonder what happened to Peter and Mrs. Tiggy-winkel…Wait, What?

Beatrix Potter

Beatrix Potter

For those of us born in the last century, our childhoods were gilded with the tales of Peter Rabbit, Squirrel Nutkin and Jemima Puddleduck. That number includes the parents, grandparents and great grandparents of today’s children. We’ve read the stories to our children who hear these tales, now in their second century, and fall in love the characters as we did. Most people will find a forgotten stuffed bunny with brown plastic eyes and a little blue Jacket hidden somewhere in their closets, attics or memories. Many of us have never heard a new story from her. There have been a few found works, some as late as 1973, but nothing since then. We’ve never known the anticipation of a new book from Beatrix Potter the way we desperately awaited the books about Harry Potter (including this year’s The Cursed Child). But that will change. In September of this year we will get the first new Beatrix Potter story in a generation. The Tale of Kitty-in-Boots is being released on September First to honor the 150th anniversary of her birth (her actual birthday is July 28th hence this particular post).

The Story of the New Story

We have this new gem thanks to the work of Jo Hanks and Quentin Blake. Ms. Hanks, who works for Penguin Random House Children’s Publishing, found a reference to a reference to the Tale of Kitty-in-Boots in an out of print biography of Beatrix Potter from the 1970s. The biography referred to a letter that Potter had sent to her publisher along with the manuscript for kitty in boots. She had sent the story, along with a sketch of the titular character and some layouts for the book to her publisher in 1914 and had meant to finish but kept getting interrupted. The interruptions, a lengthy illness and the First World War, were sufficient to keep Ms. Potter from returning to the work before her death in 1943. Ms. Hanks took what she had learned of this missing tale and scoured the Potter Archives at the Victoria and Albert Museum and found the story, in the form of handwritten school notebooks and a dummy book. Also included were a black and white sketch of the villain Mr. Tod, and a single color drawing of Kitty. The story was complete, but with only two sketches extant, a new illustrator was needed.

Quentin Blake Illus Kitty in boots

Kitty-in-Boots illustration by Quentin Blake

Finding an artist willing to take on the work of one of the most beloved children’s authors and illustrators is never going to be easy or quick. This is where Quentin Blake arrives. Blake is no stranger to working with iconic authors. His name may not be known by all, but if you’ve read a book by Roald Dahl, then you are familiar with his work. When presented with the 100 year old manuscript, Mr. Blake jumped at the chance to work on a story that “might have been waiting for [him].” He even went so far as to draw the unnamed owner of Kitty as an elderly Beatrix Potter.

Potter Illus Kitty in Boots

Kitty-in-Boots illustration by Beatrix Potter

The New Story

The story of Kitty-in-Boots revolves around, as Potter herself put it in the letter to her publisher, “a well-behaved prime black Kitty cat, who leads rather a double life”. Not content to laze and sleep as most cats do, this cat likes to dress as a country squire when no one is looking and go hunting. Without giving too much away Jo Hanks told the BBC that “The tale really is the best of Beatrix Potter. …It has double identities, colourful villains and a number of favourite characters from other tales.” Perhaps best of all is one more glimpse of Peter Rabbit, albeit a slower and portlier one.

The Woman We Never Knew

Beatrix Potter actually was the kind woman who wrote books about small animals that we all believe her to be, but she was also a great deal more. She was a child of privilege, the daughter of a lawyer and granddaughter of one of the wealthiest textile printers and members of parliament. Her cousins are the ancestors of the Duchess of Cambridge, meaning that Beatrix herself is related to the future King George VII.

Potter Illus Tools and Fungi

Tools and Fungi illustration by Beatrix Potter

She was also a well-regarded amateur scientist. After receiving encouragement to make her watercolors of fungi more technically correct, Beatrix began in depth study of mushrooms and other fungi. Due to the limited educational opportunities afforded women of her time, she was primarily self-taught. At one point she even submitted some theories to the director of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, Sir William Thiselton-Dyer. Because of her gender and her status as an amateur Thiselton-Dyer rejected her ideas, as they disagreed with the accepted theories of the day. Beatrix was not to be put off lightly, however. After refining her theory with the encouragement of noted Kew Gardens Mycologist, George Massee, she finalized a paper to be presented to the Linnean Society of London. She could not present her work, “On the Germination of the Spores of the Agaricinea,” but Masse agreed to do so for her. Beatrix removed her paper from consideration because she noted a contaminated sample, and the work was never published. The paper is still reviewed as a respected work by today’s mycologists and her watercolors continue to be used for fungi identification.

On top of being an author and illustrator, and a respected amateur mycologist she was also a pioneering conservationist and business woman. She was very passionate about Herdwicke sheep and became a prize winning breeder. Her employees loved her because she was not afraid to try the latest methods and always hired the best personnel. The Business acumen that worked well on her farm also carried over into her writing. It was Beatrix who began the merchandising of her characters when she registered an idea for a plush peter rabbit with the patent office in 1903, making Peter the first licensed character.

Peter Rabbit illustration by Beatrix Potter

Peter Rabbit illustration by Beatrix Potter

Ms. Potter was a follower of Canton Hardwicke Rawnsley, the founder of the National Trust for Places of Historical Interest or Natural Beauty. She acted as a patron for the Girl Guides, the British version of the Girl Scouts. When she died, she left 15 farms and most of her total property to the National Trust. Because of this donation and her work in conservation of land, flora and fauna she is credited with preserving much of what is today’s Lake District National Park.

For More on Potter, her Characters and Studies see:

  • The Complete Tales by Beatrix Potter (J E POT)
  • Beatrix Potter’s Art by Anne Stevenson Hobbs (709.2 HOB)
  • Beatrix Potter: Artist, Storyteller and Countrywoman by Judy Taylor (92 POT)
  • At Home With Beatrix Potter: The Creator of Peter Rabbit by Susan Denyer (823.912 DEN)
  • Beatrix Potter’s Gardening Life: the plants and places that inspired the classic children’s tales by Marta McDowell (823.912 MCD)

What in the World is Heraldry: A Primer

By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department

Grenville ArmorialHeraldry, the word brings up ideas of knights and tournaments, royalty and television dramas. To most people it’s a stuffy, old fashion anachronism. To a very small few, it is an art form. What it really is falls under the modern concept of branding. If you were in the know in the 14th and 15th centuries you could look at the heralds list at a tournament and recognize knights from their coats of arms. If you had not met the knight personally, you could judge his character based on his arms. Knights of the same family had similar elements and you could see that sir Thomas was a younger brother or cousin or nephew of Sir William and make a value judgment based on what you knew of Sir William. This is the same way we make a judgment of the quality on a restaurant based on whether we see two arches or on a field gules, or woman gardant argent on a field noir. While these terms are in the language of heraldry the images they describe are not. No one would mistake Starbucks or McDonalds as knightly.

While the decoration of a shield or garment goes back for thousands of years, heraldry as we know it is documented back to the time of Charlemagne. It started as a way to differentiate between people on the battlefield. In the eras before military uniform, you had to know exactly who was on your side so you did not attack, or be attacked by, one of your fellows. As armor became more comprehensive and helmets began to cover the entire head, a new means of identification became necessary. The natural thing to do was to make sure you used the same design on all your shields and that what you used was different from other people. As more people began to use this new system, someone had to keep track of designs to make sure that repetition did not occur and that designs were recorded and differentiated between sons and cousins etcetera. This led to the creation of Heraldic authorities that kept (and still keep) roles of arms and titles and control who is granted what arms and how close to the original familial arms they can be.

Heraldic_Banners_of_the_Knights_of_the_Garter_mid-16th_Century

Banners of mid-sixteenth-century Knights of the Order of the Garter supported by single beasts.

The initial designs were simple ones. Shapes of one color, or tincture, were placed on fields of another. The only real rule of early heraldry was that you did not place a color on another color. If the field was red, the symbol had to be silver or gold. Black was occasionally acceptable for either tincture or metal. Simple designs were quickly used up and more complex symbols began to be used. As families grew and armigerous , or arms bearing, families intermarried and carried both arms going forward through processes called impaling or quartering, designs got more and more elaborate. This could be taken to the extreme such as the case of the Grenville Armorial, with its 719 quarterings. This is an exceptional example though. Most Arms only had 16 quartering at most and they were often repeated. The other issue was differencing arms from father to son. A father had arms of a saltire noir on a field argent, a black X on a silver shield. He also had six sons. They couldn’t all take his arms, only the eldest could and he had to bear a label on his until his father had passed. The system of cadency was created. This varied from country to country but usually consisted of a label applied to the father’s arms and each point of that label carried a specific type of symbol depending on birth order. Some countries varied this. Scotland for instance used a system of borders to delineate the same thing.Scottish Cadency

In modern times heraldry has fallen in importance amongst the general population. It has not, however disappeared completely. The family of Kate Middleton was granted a coat of arms before her marriage to Prince William, showing the continued importance of the institution of heraldry to the elites of the United Kingdom. In Scotland the “family” coat of arms does not exist, regardless of what those online family history services tell you. The arms of the family are actually the arms of the chief of the clan of that name and only that person can claim them as their own. It is actually a crime to claim them without a certification of the Lord Lyon, the Scottish heraldic authority. You might think that an egalitarian nation like the United States is beyond such trappings of nobility, but you would be mistaken. There are a few heraldic authorities in the United States, but none who have governmental status. The American College of Heraldry, a private non-profit organization will register your arms giving them some protection from use by others. The only official governmental organization concerned with heraldry is one that goes back to the military roots of heraldry. The Army Institute of Heraldry keeps track of all the coats of arms of all branches of the service and designs, or commissions designs, for new units, ships and awards. The symbolism and association of heraldry continues to be relevant today even beyond the days of using them as a very colorful My Name Is … badge.

 


For More Information on Heraldry:

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