Young ones and their families are invited to come trick-or-treat with the Friends of the Library. Costumes will be admired but are not required!
Activities will be in the Children’s Department on the first floor.
Call 615-595-1244 for more information.
by Chelsea Bennett, Reference Department
We did the mash.
We did the monster mash.
We did the mash, and it was a book list smash!
That is to say, we think y’all really liked the books we picked out for October’s monstrous book display. We had to refill it with new books several times! In case you missed it – or want to relive it –, here are the books we featured in October 2018.
- The Casebook of Victor Frankenstein by Peter Ackroyd (F ACK)
- The Loch by Steve Alten (F ALT)
- Aunt Dimity: Vampire Hunter by Nancy Atherton (F ATH)
- Lives of the Monster Dogs by Kirsten Bakis (F BAK)
- I’m the Vampire, That’s Why by Michele Bardsley (F BAR)
- Infernal Parade by Clive Barker (F BARKER)
- Oscar Wilde and the Vampire Murders by Gyles Brandreth (F BRA)
- Vampyrrhic by Simon Clark (F CLA)
- The Gates by John Connolly (F CON)
- Undead and Unwed by Mary Janice Davidson (F DAV)
- The Boy Who Drew Monsters by Keith Donohue (F DONOHUE)
- A Study in Scarlet; The Hound of the Baskervilles by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (F DOYLE)
- Dracula in London by P. N. Elrod, ed. (F DRA)
- Grendel by John Gardner (F GAR)
- Camouflage by Joe Haldeman (F HAL)
- The Monsters of St. Helena by Brooks Hansen (F HAN)
- Sorcerers of the Nightwing by Geoffrey Huntington (F HUN)
- Mazes and Monsters by Rona Jaffe (F JAFFE)
- Cycle of the Werewolf by Stephen King (F KIN)
- Dean Koontz’s Frankenstein, Book One: Prodigal Son by Dean Koontz (F KOO)
- The Black Swan by Mercedes Lackey (F LAC)
- Chasing the Moon by A. Lee Martinez (F MAR)
- Mothers & Other Monsters by Maureen F. McHugh (F MCHUGH)
- The Moon and the Sun by Vonda N. McIntyre (F MCINTYRE)
- You Suck: a love story by Christopher Moore (F MOO)
- The Possessions by Sara Flannery Murphy (F MURPHY)
- Monster by Frank Peretti (F PER)
- Relic by Douglas Preston & Lincoln Child (F PRE)
- A Monster’s Notes by Laurie Sheck (F SHE)
- The New Annotated Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (F SHELLEY)
- A Winter Haunting by Dan Simmons (F SIM)
- The Terror by Dan Simmons (F SIM)
- Sacred Monster by Donald E. Westlake (F WES)
- Sense and Sensibility and Sea Monsters by Ben H. Winters and Jane Austen (F WIN)
- Sustenance by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (F YARBRO)
- Burning Shadows by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (F YARBRO)
- Great Southern Mysteries by E. Randall Floyd (001.940975 FLO)
- American Monsters: a history of monster lore, legends, and sightings in America by Linda S. Godfrey (001.944 GOD)
- Abominable Science! Origins of the Yeti, Nessi, and other famous cryptids by Daniel Loxton and Donald R. Prothero (001.944 LOX)
- Sasquatch: legend meets science by Jeff Meldrum (001.944 MEL)
- Cryptozoology A to Z: the encyclopedia of loch monsters, Sasquatch, Chupacabras, and other authentic mysteries of nature by Loren Coleman & Jerome Clark (001.94403 COL)
- More Haunted Tennessee by Charles Edwin Price (133.1 PRI)
- True Ghost Stories and Eerie Legends from America’s Most Haunted Neighborhood by David Dominé (133.109 DOM)
- The Haunting of the Presidents: a paranormal history of the U.S. presidency by Joel Martin & William J. Birnes (133.10973 MAR)
- Ghosts of Franklin: Tennessee’s most haunted town by Margie Gould Thessin (133.10973 THE)
- The Bell Tower: the case of Jack the Ripper finally solved in San Francisco by Robert Graysmith (364.15 GRA)
- People Who Eat Darkness by Richard Lloyd Parry (364.1523092 PAR)
- Alligators in the Sewer: and 222 other urban legends by Thomas J. Craughwell (398.2 CRA)
- Demon in the Woods: tall tales and true from East Tennessee by Charles Edwin Price (398.2 PRI)
- Living with the Living Dead: the wisdom of the zombie apocalypse by Greg Garrett (398.21 GAR)
- The Zombie Book: the encyclopedia of the living dead by Nick Redfern with Brad Steiger (398.21 RED)
- The Werewolf Book: the encyclopedia of shape-shifting beings by Brad Steiger (398.24 STE)
- Zombies from History by Geoff Holder (398.45 HOL)
- The Werewolf in Lore and Legend by Montague Summers (398.45 SUM)
- How to Make a Zombie: the real life (and death) science of reanimation and mind control by Frank Swain (398.45 SWA)
- Dragons, Unicorns, and Sea Serpents: a classic study of the evidence for their existence by Charles Gould (398.469 GOU)
- Young Frankenstein: the story of the making of the film by Mel Brooks with Rebecca Keegan (791.4372 BRO)
- Doctor Who: Character Encyclopedia by Jason Loborik, Annabel Gibson, and Moray Laing (791.4572 LOB)
- Zombies Have Issues by Greg Stones (818 STO)
- The Complete War of the Worlds: Mars’ invasion of Earth from H.G. Wells to Orson Welles by Brian Holmsten & Alex Lubertozzi, editors (823.912 COM)
- Beowulf: a new verse translation by Seamus Heaney, translator (829.3 BEO)
- The Hidden Hitler by Lothar Machtan (B HITLER)
By Alysia Maxwell, WCPLtn Library
It’s Halloween and that means it’s time for the creepy crawlies and the monsters to come out. Kids are planning their costumes and their routes to the houses that give out the best candy. Houses are decked out in spider webs and eerie lights, and people are reveling in the supernatural and the macabre.
As parents, this time of year can be hard. We often want to protect children from the scariest things out there, but how much do we protect them and how much do we let them experience some of the fun of the season? After all, what is it that we love so much about scary stories? Why do we seek out the things that send prickles down our spine? As adults we think that it’s that rush of adrenaline that comes from our senses being on high alert; but it’s more than that. It’s also the relief that floods your body when you realize there’s not really someone hiding the closet. It’s the calm that washes away the fear when you know you are not in danger; everything is fine. You are safe.
That’s what it really comes down to, not the fear, but the feeling of safety. No one actually wants to be scared all the time. We seek it out when feeling safe becomes too commonplace, too work-a-day, too boring. We chase that rush of fear so that we can appreciate that feeling of tranquility again.
Kids are searching for that too, although they may not realize it. The whole world is big and scary to them and they need to feel that reassurance as much as adults do, possibly even more so. Of course, every kid is different and what barely startles one might be too much for another. I’m not telling you to traumatize your children, but don’t shy away from letting them read something that might be a little scary. Let them experience those shivers so they can feel safe again. What could possibly be safer than being snuggled up warm with mom and dad reading a book together? Here are some great stories to read with your kids that will give you both the shivers.
Wolves in the Walls by Neil Gaiman; Lucy hears noises coming from inside the walls. She is sure that there are wolves in the walls, but her family doesn’t believe it. They tell her, “If the wolves come out of the walls, it’s all over”. This picture book is great for a younger crowd because it is punctuated with humorous moments that break up the tension. When the wolves finally do come out of the walls they end up doing silly things like wearing Lucy’s socks and eating toast and jam. This story says to kids that the thing they are afraid of may turn out to be not as bad as they think, and maybe even something they can handle just fine.
Another Gaiman gem for slightly older kids is Coraline. Yes, it is a movie and a graphic novel, both of which are fantastic – but for me, nothing beats the original novel. Something about the way the light glints off the button eyes of the Other Mother is so sinister and frightening. Here is a story that is precisely that search for excitement and return to safety. Coraline is bored with her uneventful life, but her search for adventure ends up more than she bargained for. When she goes exploring the house and finds a mysteriously (sometimes) bricked up doorway it leads her to a very unnerving and terrifying version of her own life. It hits kids close to home with a seemingly idyllic family trying to steal her away from her real family. And no adult comes to her rescue. Coraline is the heroine of her own story and must rescue herself as well as her parents. What better way to empower a child than to show them they can face their own fear and conquer it.
The Jumbies by Tracey Baptiste is a wonderfully spooky story based on Caribbean folklore. There are menacing creatures in the woods with glowing eyes and dark intentions. Corinne believes they are just stories made up to get children to behave, but maybe they are not made up after all. There is a witch whose beauty and attractiveness give her an ominous quality, especially when she tries to insert herself into Corinne’s family. Once again the children are the ones who have to confront that which they fear and defeat it. Baptiste gives us fresh monsters to fuel the imagination.
Scarlett Hart Monster Hunter by Marcus Sedgwick reads more like an adventure story than a terror filled one, however this graphic novel does feature zombies, gargoyles and all sorts of otherworldly foes as well as a very earthly one as well. Scarlett’s got grit and gadgets and her own faithful retainer (sort of like Batman’s Alfred) to help her bring down the baddies.
Guys Read: Terrifying Tales collected by Jon Scieszka is a great compilation of middle grade short stories by various authors including, among others, the master of kids’ horror himself R.L. Stein of Goosebumps fame. These are fun for reading quick stories each night (under the covers of course!)
The Prince of Mist by Carlos Ruiz Zafon. Parents may have read his beautiful Shadow of the Wind, but this oft overlooked YA title is particularly disturbing. Max and his sister Alicia move to a small town and soon discover their new house holds a dark secret from the past. They must uncover the mystery of a spectral creature who is trying to collect an old debt. If the weeping angels in Doctor Who send a chill up your spine this one is right up your alley.
The fun of Halloween is allowing ourselves to feel that delicious prickle of fear followed by the reassurance that we are not about to be eaten after all! So grab a book and a flashlight, pull the blankets over your heads, and have fun reading these scary stories!
By Chelsea Bennett, Reference Department
It’s October, and what better time of year to pick out a book that will give you the creeps? Today we’re going to look at five works of fiction that feature terrifying creatures. (Sticklers may feel that some of these descriptions contain spoilers, but I’ve tried not to include any details that aren’t already well-known by horror buffs or pop culture aficionados.)
When it comes to monsters, what frightens me most is a sense of inevitability. A monster doesn’t have to be hideous or enormous to cause you to lose control: think the fatal allure of Dracula, or the overwhelming numbers of a zombie invasion. And what about a creature that can cause you to descend into madness, living — perhaps eternally — after having lost the essence of who you are?
“The Call of Cthulhu”
“In his house at R’lyeh, dead Cthulhu waits dreaming.”
One creature with such terrifying powers is Cthulhu, first introduced in horror writer H. P. Lovecraft‘s short story “The Call of Cthulhu.” Portrayed as an ancient, dead-but-waiting god, his giant form a strange combination of octopus, bat, and human, Cthulhu embodies a powerful evil. One look at him will drive anyone insane, simply because the human mind cannot comprehend such terror. Unsurprisingly, he is a favorite subject of death metal bands! And you poetry scholars might recognize that Lovecraft seems to have been inspired by Tennyson’s sonnet, “The Kraken.”
Lovecraft’s knack for capturing dread has inspired an entire genre known as “Lovecraftian horror,” described by Wikipedia as “a subgenre of horror fiction that emphasizes the cosmic horror of the unknown (and in some cases, unknowable) more than gore or other elements of shock.”
The Hound of the Baskervilles
“I sprang to my feet, my inert hand grasping my pistol, my mind paralyzed by the dreadful shape which had sprung out upon us from the shadows of the fog.”
Sherlockian scholars consider this Sir Arthur Conan Doyle‘s perfect novel. The tale has been adapted, riffed on, referenced, and parodied dozens of times, taking new forms in every kind of media, including comic books, plays, radio dramas, video games, and more.
How has this story stood the test of time? Sherlock Holmes is, of course, one of literature’s most fascinating characters. But the spectral hound is the real draw. Tied to local legend and a family curse spanning generations, it is an unearthly beast that glows in the dark, pursuing members of the Baskerville family across the moors until they drop dead from fright. But the hound leaves the dead bodies alone. Therefore, the beast doesn’t hunt for food, making its motives inscrutable, but undeniably evil.
Life on the moor is full of secrets and intrigue, both stimulating Sherlock Holmes’ mind and hampering his investigation. Holmes, a man of science, remains skeptical about the supernatural hound’s existence, but he can deny neither the enormous paw prints left in the sodden ground, nor the chilling howls heard in the night. Doyle perfectly paces this novel, increasing the suspense until the climactic moment: the terrifying appearance of the hound!
“Then he saw them. The gulls. Out there, riding the seas. What he had thought at first to be the white caps of the waves were gulls. Hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands…”
You’re probably aware of Alfred Hitchcock’s classic film The Birds, but did you know he based it on a short story by Daphne du Maurier? While not a “monster story,” this is one of my favorite works of suspense. For me, the premise is all the more terrifying for being within the realm of possibility, especially as we see a growing occurrence of natural disasters in real life.
In remote, rugged Cornwall, a wounded war veteran named Nat becomes increasingly aware of flocks of restless birds. The flocks increase in number, and the birds grow more violent and daring. At first, Nat attributes this behavior to the unusual weather, but takes the threat more seriously than do his neighbors. Soon, however, the entire country is under siege, and it’s no longer safe to go outdoors. The tension mounts beautifully, as the narrator gradually comes to understand the enormity of the event: the birds are inescapable, and this isn’t a fight he can fight alone.
What I love most about this short story, as opposed to the film version, is how it activates my imagination. (The same could be said for every good book, I suppose.) Visualizing the growing threat, the brutal attacks, and the despair of the survivors leaves me breathless and full of adrenaline.
“It’s better to face madness with a plan than to sit still and let it take you in pieces.”
For a more modern look at the toll horror takes on a human mind, we turn to Bird Box, Josh Malerman‘s debut novel. No one can say what the creatures in this story look like, because anyone who glimpses them is driven to immediate, deadly violence, culminating in suicide. The victims lose their minds, as well as their humanity, before losing their own lives. A mother and her young children have survived by covering the windows in their isolated house, and learning to navigate blindfolded when they go outside. Now, they are driven to leave their home behind, and they set out on a blindfolded quest to find other survivors. Who can they trust? And what is following them?
Be warned: this intense novel doesn’t shy away from the disturbing, graphic descriptions of the victims’ deaths.
“Want a balloon?”
When you think “scary clown,” you probably picture Pennywise, the creature Tim Curry played in the 1990 TV adaptation of Stephen King‘s novel, It. The thought of a creepy guy in white makeup who wants to eat children is sufficiently scary for most people, but IT is more than that: the clown is only one of the forms IT takes.
Ancient, malevolent, and powerful, IT comes from an unknown dimension. It lies slumbering until atrocious acts of human violence awaken it (unfortunately, this happens fairly regularly). When it comes to earth to feed, IT can take the shape of anything it chooses, in order to lure its victims. Sometimes IT appears as a victim’s loved one; other times, IT appears as a victim’s worst fear. But, as with Cthulhu, if a person were to see IT’s true form, the absolute horror would so baffle his mind, that he would go insane.
In 2015, British costume company MorphCostumes voted Pennywise the scariest creature in literature. The clown trumped Dracula, The Lord of the Rings’ Nazgûl, and Harry Potter’s Dementors, among other classic horror standards, based on “appearance, powers, and evil intent.”
Did your favorite creature make my list? Leave a comment below! And if you’re looking for history on some of the most famous undead creatures, check out this blog post from last year, “How Monsters Are Born,” by reference librarian Sharon Reily.
By Stacy Parish, Children’s Department
“Eight more days ‘til Halloween, Halloween . . .” OK, maybe not the most appropriate way to lead into a blog about scary-but-not-too-scary creatures who live in children’s books, by invoking a jingle used in the classic horror film “Halloween,” starring the fabulous future kid-lit author Jamie Lee Curtis, but with that tie-in, how could I not?
The Wild Things
First in our no-particular-order list of creepy creatures: the Wild Things inhabiting the island where Max sailed his private boat in and out of weeks and almost over a year in Maurice Sendak’s fabulous classic Where The Wild Things Are. Being the King of all Wild Things was a blast for a while, what with having no homework, no bedtime, and no rules, but Max became terribly lonely “and wanted to be where someone loved him best of all.” So he abdicated his throne and sailed back into the night of his very own room, to find his still-hot supper waiting for him. The lesson here, in my opinion? Those who truly love you will forgive your occasional monstrous behavior, and maybe even make you a grilled cheese sandwich.
“You’re a monster, Mr. Grinch/Your heart’s an empty hole/Your brain is full of spiders/You have garlic in your soul.” Hence, the next monster in our Monster Mash-Up, that grouchy green grump who lives on Mount Crumpit. Yes, friends and fiends, the antagonist-turned-protagonist of Dr. Seuss’ How The Grinch Stole Christmas is next in the roster of scary-not-scary monsters. Let us ponder for a moment the classic literary juxtaposition of Good vs. Evil. After a busy night of animal abuse, cosplay, and totally highjacking all the boxes and bags and the last can of Who-Hash from Whoville, yet waking up to the sound of Cindy Lou Who and all her friends and relatives singing and celebrating anyway, the Grinch has an epiphany. “What if Christmas, he thought, doesn’t come from a store. What if Christmas, perhaps, means a little bit more.” The Grinch’s heart “grew three sizes that day,” making him not so monstrous after all.
I implied at the beginning of this article that the monsters listed here wouldn’t be too ghastly. Darling Reader, I lied. You should now take the opportunity to fortify yourself with some chocolate before proceeding onward, because the Dementors from JK Rowling’s Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (and subsequent books in the series) are making their sinister presence known in our melange of monsters. According to Professor Remus Lupin, “Dementors are among the foulest creatures that walk this earth. They infest the darkest, filthiest places, they glory in decay and despair, they drain peace, hope and happiness out of the air around them. Even Muggles feel their presence, though they can’t see them. Get too near a Dementor and every good feeling, every happy memory, will be sucked out of you. If it can, the Dementor will feed on you long enough to reduce you to something like itself – soulless and evil. You’ll be left with nothing but the worst experiences of your life.” According to the website Pottermore.com (and if you don’t know about this marvelous site, you must visit as soon as you finish reading this delightful and not frightful blog), Dementors are the true scary beasties of the mystical realm. Oh, it is also imperative to note that Dementors cannot be destroyed, but only driven away temporarily by using the Patronus Charm.
Yikes. Okay. Let’s flee the darkness of the Dementors and continue onward in our odyssey of oddities. Do you know the gruffalo? No? Oh! The Gruffalo is a children’s book written by Julia Donaldson that was inspired by a Chinese folk tale in which a fox borrows the terror of a tiger. In Donaldson’s story, a mouse is taking a walk in the woods and encounters several creatures—a fox, an owl, and a snake– who would like to make a meal out of him. The clever mouse declines the “invitations” to their homes by telling them that he already has lunch plans with his friend the gruffalo, who is a monster-like hybrid of half grizzly bear and half buffalo, whose favorite snack happens to be whichever animal that the mouse is trying to evade. Terrified by the description of the fictional beast, each animal flees. Mousie is so proud of himself, and taunts them: “Silly old fox/owl/snake, doesn’t he know? There’s no such thing as a gruffalo!” But here comes the plot twist! The mouse is shocked to encounter a real gruffalo, who threatens to eat him. Again, Mousie’s cunning saves the day. The mouse tells the gruffalo that he is the scariest monster in the forest, and proves it by leading the gruffalo past each creature that menaced him earlier, causing them to run away again when they see them walking together. The gruffalo is increasingly impressed by this, and is apparently clueless that *he* is the scary one, so the sly mouse further presses it to his advantage by threatening to eat the gruffalo, who then hightails it into the forest. Personally, I find this to be an excellent instructional tale for those among us who are physically diminutive (I’m 5’2”, Darling Reader) but make up for it in confidence.
So there you have it, Darling Reader, some charming-and not-alarming (well, with the exception of those foul Dementors) monsters who inhabit the pages of children’s books, and now your own imagination. Have a frighteningly good Fall, and don’t be afraid to keep exploring the vast forest of literature that is available to you at WCPL. Happy reading–
***The opinions and viewpoints expressed here are, as always, solely a product of the sometimes-disturbing contents of the author’s head and are in no way representative of the employees of WCPL, their families, or their Halloween-costumed housepets. The author also wishes it to be known that while the nickname “Scary Stacy” was bestowed upon her by some sorority sisters in college, she really is trying to mellow into a kinder, gentler sort of modern monster.
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
Interested in branching out in the romance genre? Tired of regular historical romances and looking for something new? Consider paranormal romance (often confused with urban fantasy, which is its own subgenre). These novels are romances, but they include some element of the paranormal or supernatural, which is why they are perfect for October. Many characters have ESP, magic or other special abilities and oftentimes the hero (or heroine) is not human but a werewolf, a vampire, a faerie (The Fae), a god, a demon, an angel or anything else writers can think of, in disguise.
Paranormal romance has its roots in Gothic fiction, which involved the supernatural (or the promise of the supernatural) and it often included the discovery of mysterious elements of antiquity. Generally there was also a large rambling house, with glimpses of lurking unknown figures with a threatening mystery and a brooding hero. Think of Jane Eyre, with the creepy old house and strange things happening in the attic, or even Dracula and Frankenstein. Thank goodness this novel has morphed into the paranormal romance.
Most sources agree that the first big hit in the paranormal romance genre was probably Diana Gabaldon’s Outlander, which won the 1991 RWA (Romance Writers Association) Best Romance award for a new “Futuristic/Fantasy/Paranormal” category. Jude Deveraux made it to the best seller list with A Knight in Shining Armor in 1989, telling a similar tale of time-crossed lovers. It is one of the fastest growing trends in the romance genre.
According to Romance Literature Statistics, in 2010 romance fiction generated just over a billion in sales, estimated to go up to $1.368 in 2011, and it has only increased since 2011!! (The Romance Market share compared to other genres – $759 million for Inspirational fiction; $682 million for mystery novels and over $500 million for the parent genre, science fiction and fantasy.) Who knew!
So romance fiction is no small thing anymore, but a force to be reckoned with!
So why is it so popular? Jordan Hawk, an author and blogger gives several reasons why this genre is still going strong:
- These books take us away from our every-day lives. If we have stress in our lives, pets and children who depend upon us, it’s nice to get away for a while.
- It exercises our imaginations. These novels are like living daydreams, where anything can happen and magical creatures exist. You could meet a Fae, a vampire, a wizard and/or help defeat evil, plus fall in love with the hero, just like the heroine.
- Some of the authors write books that can be considered fantasy adventure stories for women. If the female lead is a take-charge kind of girl we can all fantasize about living a life like that. There’s a reason people sometime call romance “mind candy”.
- You can read about people meeting their soulmate, and fantasize about this in your own life. Imagine there is someone out there just for you and he is looking for you, too. Some authors write racy stories and some write gentle romance novels, so you can pick what suits you best.
One thing: these books are in a series and are meant to be read in order. Don’t pick up the third or fourth book and expect to know what’s happening. You should try to read in series order, as they are meant to be read–not in random order. (We have Interlibrary Loan here at our library which will allow you get the books you’re missing in a series so you can read them in order.)
Paranormal fiction can be fun and humorous, or sexy and dark. There is something for everyone in this genre! Here are a few authors in each of the above categories.
Humorous and Light Paranormal Authors:
- Mary Janice Davidson
- Charlaine Harris
- Katie McAlister
- Molly Harper
- Shanna Swendson
- Michele Bardsley
- Mimi Jean Pamphiloff
- Lydia Dare
- Janet Chapman
- Nora Roberts
- Tracy Madison
- Mary Balogh
- Barbara Bretton
- Victoria Laurie
Sexy Paranormal Authors:
- Keri Arthur
- Christine Feehan
- Nalini Singh
- Kresley Cole
- Stephanie Rowe
- J R Ward
- Victoria Dannan
- Karen Marie Moning
- P C Cast
- Sherilynn Kenyon
- Lyndsay Sands
- Jeaniene Frost
- Charlene Hartnady
- https://www.stopyourekillingme.com/GenreCats/Paranormal.html huge a-z list
By Sharon Reily, Reference Department
There are a lot of scary things in the world, and I’m not talking about the upcoming election. Literature and films are loaded with frightening monstrosities, but I’ll focus on three “classic” creatures – vampires, zombies, and mummies – and examine the origins of these horrors that have terrified folks for centuries.
From Bela Lugosi to Gary Oldman and Robert Pattinson, everyone has a favorite movie bloodsucker. But the original vampires of legend weren’t as forlornly romantic as Oldman or as adorable as Pattinson. Ancient versions of the vampire weren’t thought to be humans returned from the grave, but were supernatural entities that didn’t take human form. There are many vampire variations around the world: an Egyptian vampire that was a demon summoned by sorcery, Asian vampires that attacked people and drained their life energy, the blood-drinking Wrathful Deities that appeared in the Tibetan Book of the Dead, and many others.
Belief in vampires surged in the Middle Ages in Europe. Any unfortunate event that befell a person or village with no obvious cause, such as disease or crop failure, could be blamed on a vampire. Villagers combined their belief that something had cursed them with their fear of the dead, and concluded that the recently deceased might be responsible, returning from the grave with evil intent.
“The Vampyre,” the first fully realized vampire story, was written by John Polidori, personal physician to Lord Byron (the haughty Byron often belittled his young employee). In 1816, Percy Shelley and Mary Godwin joined Byron and Polidori at Byron’s villa on Lake Geneva. Byron suggested that his guests each write a ghost story. Mary’s tale became the novel Frankenstein. One theory is that Polidori, inspired by his resentment of Byron’s arrogant treatment, based his character Lord Ruthven, a charming aristocratic vampire, on the poet. But when Polidori’s story was published in 1819, it was credited to Byron. Polidori tried to prove his authorship, but was accused of misusing Byron’s name.
The most famous appearance of a vampire in literature was Bram Stoker’s Dracula in 1897. Like Polidori’s vampire, Dracula appeared as an aristocratic gentleman. It’s often assumed that Stoker’s Count Dracula was inspired by Vlad Dracula, a real-life prince cited as an influence for modern personifications of vampires. Known as Vlad the Impaler because of the gruesome method he used to kill his enemies, he is considered a national hero for the extreme measures he used to defend his Romanian principality in the 15th century. Historians have implied but never proved that Vlad drank the blood of his enemies.
Stoker’s novel was popular in the Victorian age, but it wasn’t until the 20th century film versions that it became iconic. The first adaptation of Stoker’s novel, the silent German film Nosferatu, was controversial because of its departures from Dracula – instead of being charming, Nosferatu was a vile character, and instead of drinking his victim’s blood to create new vampires, he spread rats and plague. The most influential adaptation of Stoker’s work was the 1931 film Dracula, starring Bela Lugosi. His performance inspired future actors who took the role and was a factor in making horror films a viable genre in the U.S. market. In the 1950s and 1960s, Christopher Lee played Dracula in a number of violent adaptations. Since then Count Dracula has been portrayed more times in film and TV than any other horror character. Now vampires are everywhere – in Anne Rice’s Interview with the Vampire, in Charlaine Harris’ Sookie Stackhouse novels (depicted on TV in True Blood), the Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight series, the TV series The Strain and Being Human, and countless others.
Those shambling creatures intent on devouring Rick Grimes and his dwindling band of survivors bear little resemblance to the earliest incarnation of the zombie. The word “zombi” originally didn’t refer to the familiar brain-eating monsters but instead to a West African deity. It later came to suggest the human force leaving the shell of a body, and ultimately a creature human in form but lacking self-awareness, intelligence, and a soul. The notion was imported to Haiti and elsewhere from Africa through the slave trade. In Haiti and the Caribbean, zombies are an element of the voodoo religion and believers take them seriously.
Haitian zombies were said to be people brought back from the dead (and sometimes controlled) through magical means by voodoo priests called bokors, often as an act of punishment. Zombies were supposedly used as slave labor on farms and sugarcane plantations, although none of these zombie-powered plantations was ever discovered. Westerners considered zombies fictional horror film characters until the 1980s when a scientist, Wade Davis, claimed in his book The Serpent and the Rainbow to have solved the mystery of the zombie. The work met much skepticism. Davis asserted that he found the actual powder used by the bokors to create zombies – a neurotoxin called tetrodotoxin that could bring on the appearance of death.
Early zombie films, most notably White Zombie in 1932 and I Walked with A Zombie in 1943, acknowledged the zombie’s voodoo roots. George Romero’s 1968 film The Night of the Living Dead introduced the current popular characterization of the zombie as a flesh-eating creature. Romero’s film established common themes in current zombie films – the zombie as a metaphor for societal unrest and alienation; unconventional protagonists (hello, Daryl Dixon); and humans reduced to “survivalist” mentality. Romero’s zombies attack in groups and can be killed with a blow to the head. Recent zombie films – 28 Days Later, Shaun of the Dead, Zombieland, World War Z, Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, and of course, The Walking Dead – feature elements of Romero’s films and ignore the voodoo connection.
Unlike vampires and zombies, mummies are not based on myth or legend. They are actual human corpses, preserved by a special method of embalming. Mummies have been found all over the world. But in ancient Egypt the mummification process was honed to a fine art over centuries, with the best prepared and preserved specimens, including Tutankhamen and other pharaohs, dating from around 1560 to 1075 B.C. The technique worked so well that after 3,000 years, we can still tell what the deceased looked like in life.
The elaborate procedure, as much a religious ritual as a technical process, took at least 70 days. The basic method was to remove organs except the heart through a slit in the body’s side. The brain was removed through the nostrils with a hooked instrument. The organs were preserved in jars and placed inside the body. The body was covered in natron, a salt with drying properties. Once the body was dry, sunken areas were filled with linen, sawdust, and other materials to make it to look lifelike. The body was then wrapped in hundreds of yards of linen strips. Finally a shroud was secured to the body and it was buried in a tomb along with objects the person would need in the Afterlife. Throughout the entire process, rituals and prayers had to be performed precisely. Why expend so much time and effort to preserve a body? The Egyptians believed that the mummified body was the home for the soul or spirit, and if the body was destroyed, the spirit might be lost.
How did a person so honored turn into the malevolent creature we know from films? Napoleon’s conquest of Egypt at the end of the 18th century sparked a European interest in ancient Egypt that was still strong in Victorian England, where public “unrollings” of mummies were held. In 1903, Bram Stoker published The Jewel of Seven Stars, the first novel featuring mummifies as supernatural antagonists. Howard Carter’s discovery of Tutankhamen’s tomb in 1922 fueled even more interest. Then came the famous Boris Karloff film, The Mummy. Released in 1932, it was based on the concept of “the pharaoh’s curse” (that anyone who disturbs a tomb would die) and featured the mummy Imhotep as an evil high priest. It set the stage for a slew of mummy films through the 1940s and 1950s. Imhotep recently reappeared in the 1999 remake of The Mummy and its sequel, The Mummy Returns.
Early film depictions of vampires, zombies, and mummies may seem a little dated and not that terrifying compared to the ultraviolence common in today’s horror films. But that might change. In 2014, Universal Pictures announced it would be rebooting its library of “classic” horror films, bringing new life to standard horror characters. The first release in this effort, The Mummy starring Tom Cruise, is due to hit theaters in 2017.
- Guiley, Rosemary. The Encyclopedia of Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Monsters. New York, NY: Facts on File, 2005. (133.423 GUI)
- Davison, Carol Margaret, ed. Bram Stocker’s Dracula: Sucking Through the Century, 1897-1997. Toronto: Dundurn, 1997 (823.8 BRA)
- Stott, Andrew McConnell. The Poet and the Vampyre: The Curse of Byron and the Birth of Literature’s Greatest Monsters. New York: Pegasus , LLC, 2014. (820.9145 STO)
- Pollard, Tom. Loving Vampires: Our Undead Obsession. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. 2016 (398.21 POL)
VAMPIRE FILMS AND TV
- Dracula: The Legacy Collection (DVD DRACULA)
- Bram Stoker’s Dracula (DVD DRACULA)
- Dracula 2000 (DVD DRACULA)
- Dracula Untold (DVD DRACULA)
- Abraham Lincoln, Vampire Hunter (DVD ABRAHAM)
- Vampire Secrets (DVD 398.21 VAM)
- Buffy, The Vampire Slayer, Seasons 1–7 (DVD BUFFY)
- True Blood, Seasons 1–7 (DVD TRUE)
- Van Helsing (DVD Van)
- Fonseca, Anthony J., and June Michele Pulliam. Encyclopedia of the Zombie: The Walking Dead in Popular Culture and Myth. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2014. (398.21 ENC)
- Holder, Geoff. Zombies From History. Stroud: History, 2013. (398.45 HOL)
- Swain, Frank. How to Make a Zombie: The Real Life (and Death) Science of Reanimation and Mind Control. London: Oneworld Publications, 2013. (398.45 SWA)
ZOMBIE FILMS AND TV
- Maggie (DVD MAGGIE)
- Night of the Living Dead (DVD NIGHT (at Leiper’s Fork branch))
- Shaun of the Dead (DVD SHAUN)
- 20-Horror Movies: Tales of Terror (includes White Zombie) (DVD TWENTY)
- The Walking Dead, Seasons 1–6 (DVD Walking)
- World War Z (DVD WORLD)
- Brier, Bob. Egyptian Mummies: Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art. New York: Quill, 1994. (393.3 BRI)
- David, A. Rosalie, and Rick Archbold. Conversations with Mummies: New Light on the Lives of Ancient Egyptians. New York: Morrow, 2000. (932 DAV)
- Janot, Francis. The Royal Mummies: Immortality in Ancient Egypt. Vercelli: White Star, 2008. (932 JAN)
- Mertz, Barbara. Red Land, Black Land: Daily Life in Ancient Egypt. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1978. (932 MER)
MUMMY FILMS AND TV
- Egypt Eternal: The Quest for Lost Tombs (DVD 932 EGY)
- The Mummy (Legacy Collection including 1932 film starring Boris Karloff) (DVD MUMMY)
- The Mummy (1999) (DVD MUMMY)
- The Mummy Returns (DVD MUMMY)
- The Pyramid (DVD PYRAMID)