By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
We all know that Christmas is on December 25, but do you know why? It wasn’t necessarily because it was the date of the birth of Jesus (most biblical scholars think he was born in March, BTW). The pagan winter solstice observances were bigger and more wide-spread, more popular and considered more important to most non-Christian cultures. The Catholic church wanted to promote Christianity (and get rid of pagan religions) so the celebration of Christ’s Mass was chosen to be on December 25 and promoted as the birth of Christ.
The “sol” in Solstice is Latin for sun and the “stice” part comes from the Latin verb for standing still. We, in the modern age know about the solstices that happen twice a year and the equinoxes that occur twice a year as well (the equinoxes are when day and night are equal in length, which is what equinox means in Latin). Cultures from the past weren’t aware of the reason for this phenomenon and so it took on a religious meaning. The nights got longer and the days got shorter. The longer nights got colder, generally, and plants died in the cold and dark. Is it any wonder that older cultures created ceremonies to bring back the sun and the warmth and the growing season? The northern pagans burned huge logs that last the midwinter celebrations, sometimes even saving a small last bit of the Yule log to burn in the next winter’s fire. The ashes of the fire on the longest night became so special many claimed it had healing properties. The livestock, cattle, pigs, chickens and other animals were often slaughtered around this time—they often would not make it through the harsh winter and much of the meat was preserved in salt. They had huge meals; sometimes it was the last of the vegetables as well as the meats, to celebrate the return of the sun. Often the winter months brought famine to some parts of Europe.
A little history…
Saturnalia was a Roman holiday, a festival that started off somber but became more and more raucous. In Scandinavia this festival was called Jul or Yule. The huge log burned to keep the long night lit became the Yule log. (And in a roundabout way we now have a fabulous holiday desert called the Buc de Noel, which is shaped like a log. It is made from chocolate cake, often decorated with marzipan mushrooms and covered in chocolate sauce. Very decadent and it has been around for hundreds of years.) Saturnalia was replaced with Christmas by the Catholic Church, to make it less pagan and to make it more solemn. It took centuries, but Christmas eventually became so raucous that it was outlawed in the new world of America.
Another rival to Christmas was the celebration of the birth of Mithra, a sun god whose birth was celebrated by Romans all over the empire on December 25. Emperor Aurelian established December 25 as the birthday of the “Invincible Sun” or Mithra in the third century as part of the Roman Winter Solstice celebrations. In 273, the Christian church selected this day to represent the birthday of Jesus, and by 336, this Roman feast day was Christianized.
In Scandinavia, Yule is celebrated when the dark half of the year starts to get shorter and the days start lasting a little longer. The sun’s rebirth was celebrated with much joy. From this day forward, the days would become longer. Bonfires were lit in the fields, and crops and trees were wished good health with toasts of spiced cider. The ceremonial Yule log was the highlight of the Solstice festival. In accordance to tradition, the log must either have been harvested from the householder’s land, or given as a gift… it must never have been bought. Once dragged into the house and placed in the fireplace it was decorated in seasonal greenery, doused with cider or ale, and dusted with flour before set ablaze by a piece of last year’s log.
Caroling, wassailing the trees, burning the Yule log, decorating the Yule tree, exchanging of presents, kissing under the mistletoe were all activities that are still part of our Christmas traditions that came from celebrating the solstice. Even the foods that we associate with solstice celebrations are similar. Cider, spiced cider, ginger tea, eggnog, fall fruits and other spiced breads and cookies.
Interested in celebrating the solstice? Try some of these ideas to start your own traditions of celebrating the rebirth of the sun.
- Many people make a winter solstice tree by hanging food to feed the animals when their food supplies have become scarce on the winter solstice.
- Make sun and or star ornaments to hang on your Christmas Tree to symbolize the return of the sun’s light.
- Some people celebrate by staying up all night on the night of the solstice to be awake to welcome back the light.
- Many people choose to not use electricity on the night of the solstice and instead enjoy the darkest night of the year by candlelight. Some people carry this tradition through to Christmas Eve. Consider inviting friends and family over for a candlelight feast!
- Eat, drink, and be merry! You can find recipes for wassail online, either spiked or unspiked to serve with your meal.
- You could burn a bigger log than normal in the fire place. You can also find a Yule Log online and watch it burn on your computer. There are even videos you could purchase to have a crackling fire on cold winter nights.
If you don’t have one, consider making a cake Yule Log. The Buche de Noel is stunning and delicious. Try some of these recipes:
- Consider writing down everything that you would like to release or change in the new year onto scraps of paper, then throw them in the fire or burn them carefully in a safe container.
- You could also write down your intentions for the new year, similar to a resolution.
And just to throw this in, in the southern hemisphere, they celebrate the summer solstice. Here are some of the things they do that you might want to incorporate in the summer or the winter.
In the past, people in the Southern hemisphere celebrated renewal, life, fertility, and the potential for a good harvest on the summer solstice. Today, many people often celebrate the arrival of summer with outdoor feasts, singing, dancing, and bonfires. You might want to bathe in sunlight; make a flower wreath to wear; start a garden or spend time tending your garden and celebrate rebirth and renewal; visit a local farm, have a festival and feast; throw a bonfire and dance; do yoga or meditation; get outside and connect with nature.
In other countries there are many traditions to celebrate the solstice. Here are a few of the most interesting. Revelers come to Hollabrunn, Austria to watch people dressed up like Krampus scare the crowd. They dress to look like Krampus and carry soft whips that they use on the crowds. Doesn’t sound like fun to me, though.
In Japan, they like to soak in hot baths outside with fruits tossed into the water that are believed to bring good health. Often the zoos do the same thing for the animals (those that like water, that is.) The macaques and hippos sure do like it!
In Korea, the meal to eat is red bean porridge. It’s believed to keep the evil spirits away.
- Winter solstice by Rosemund Pilcher (F PIL)
- Winter solstice by Elin Hildenbrand (F HIL)
- Krampus: the Yule lord by Brom (F BRA)
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winter_solstice (astronomical)
- http://time.com/5060889/winter-solstice-rituals/ – Japan is interesting
Part 1 of 2
Most church historians have said that although December 25 is the official birth date for Jesus, most believe he was born in March. So why do we celebrate Christmas on December 25?
Because of Mithras. Mithraism spread across Asia Minor from Persia and became very popular with the Roman army. The Roman army was made up of conquered peoples, many of whom worshiped Mithras. He was a sun god; one of his main celebration dates was December 25, to ensure that the sun would be reborn to bring warmth to the world again in the spring and summer. When Christianity was just starting, Mithraism was one of its main rivals. So the church changed the date of the celebration of Jesus’ birth to December 25.
The other main rival for Christmas was the Roman celebration of Saturnalia. This farming festival included feasting, giving gifts to family and sharing food with the poor lasted a whole week, ending on December 25. The Romans drank to excess and ate to excess, which is what many do today. The early Church considered these celebrations unseemly, so they made giving gifts and food to the poor part of the Christmas festival.
Christmas was a solemn and reflective holy day (holiday) for several centuries for Christians – Christmas was originally Christ’s Mass, a special service. But the pagan celebrations persisted for so long that the Church adopted them, hoping that the pagans would become Christian.
The way we celebrate Christmas now generally originated in the Middle Ages, mostly from England. The decorations, carols, food, cards and gift giving were brought to the United States from England, Holland and Germany. Santa Claus was originally Saint Nicolas, which in Dutch became Sinter Claus, which became Santa Claus. In Holland, Belgium and Italy, children are left presents in their shoes on December 6, which is St. Nicholas’ Day. The Santa Claus we all know and are used to was created by Thomas Nast for Harper’s Weekly, and first appeared in 1863!
Did you know Christmas was outlawed in the Puritan community of Plymouth. The Puritans associated all the celebrating and carousing with paganism. By the 1870s, Christmas gradually began to become more like what we know now. In the Jamestown Colony, in Virginia, Christmas was celebrated riotously, almost like it was in England.
Fun facts about our Christmas traditions coming in Part II!!
- Christmas curiosities: old, dark and forgotten Christmas by John Grossman, c 2007