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So Many Christians, So Few Lions by George Yancey and David Williamson

By Lance Hickerson, Reference Departmentfew lions

What’s the Big Deal about the New Study on Christianophobia in the U.S.?

Two professors of Sociology just published their rigorous research on whether there is what may be called Christianophobia in America. They define Christianophobia as unreasonable hatred or fear of Christians. Their book: So Many Christians, So Few Lions, is printed by a mainstream academic publisher. This is significant in that the study is coming from the professional academic world versus what otherwise might be written off as incidental musings over isolated occurrences.

Isn’t this a biased study since at least one of the professors is a Christian?

No more than the fact that Yancey is black means he cannot say anything scientifically valid about racism. He has done significant studies on racism, and now, on Christianophobia.

So what did the authors, George Yancey and David Williamson, find?

First, they are finding that it is conservative Christians who are singled out. “Anti-Christian hostility is a phenomenon that conservative Christians have to deal with, but Christians in general usually escape this level of animosity” (p. 33).

Second, the authors observe : “Surprisingly, religious groups in general experience more animosity than racial groups” (p. 33; “As we have already seen in the … data, that animosity toward Christians is more prevalent than animosity toward people of color … “ p. 123, bold mine).

Third, a personal observation is that their work is based on a large national survey which helps toward having a valid research sample versus the common unscientific type polls by news groups we hear every day which tend to work with 1) too small a sample of people to draw larger conclusions, while often 2) self-selecting participants that already lean the way they hope the survey turns out (thus sample bias)!.

Yancey and Williams summarize what they have learned thus far.

An unknown percentage of individuals hate, mistrust, and/or fear conservative Christians to an extensive degree. We know from the information provided by the American National Election Survey [2012; involving 3,067 respondents] that their number is not likely miniscule since nearly a third of the country feels substantial relative hostility toward conservative Christians. The extent of relative hostility directed toward this group is at least as high as that directed at Muslims; thus those concerned about Islamophobia in the United States have as much reason to be concerned about this relative hostility toward conservative Christians—especially since those with this antipathy are more likely to be wealthy, educated, and white, thus to have greater per capita social power than the average American.

Our deeper exploration through qualitative data [open ended questionnaires with 3,577 reponspondents] indicates that at least some with relative hostility toward conservative Christians despise what they see as this group’s intolerance and homophobia. They [those exhibiting anti-Christian hostility] rely on stereotypes every bit as potent as those based on race, ethnicity, sex, or sexual preference. They show a personal mistrust of conservative Christians and consider them evil; as the opposite of respect and tolerance, this can be seen as bigotry. They fear Christians will take over our society and think of them as mindless sheep led by manipulative leaders. This dehumanization leaves some of them open to a societal rules that disparately impact conservative Christians. (p. 109).

Who is it that holds this animosity toward conservative Christians?

Basically, the hostility is rooted in an elite subculture involving those who may be generally described as: highly educated, white, wealthy, not highly religious, and identified as progressives (defined as an understanding of morality that minimizes traditional religious justifications and is determined by what the individual decides is best for him- or herself).

According to this elite subgroup, what is wrong with Christians?

Co-author George Yancey answered this question in an interview on the book with the Christian Post. He responds:

“In the minds of many of the respondents Christians are ignorant, intolerant and stupid individuals who are unable to think for themselves. The general image they have of Christians is that they are a backward, non-critical thinking, child-like people who do not like science and want to interfere with the lives of everyone else.

But even worse, they see ordinary Christians as having been manipulated by evil Christian leaders and will vote in whatever way those leaders want. They believe that those leaders are trying to set up a theocracy to force everybody to accept their Christian beliefs. So, for some with Christianophobia, this is a struggle for our society and our ability to move toward a progressive society. Christians are often seen as the great evil force that blocks our society from achieving this progressive paradise.”

What’s the big deal—how can such a small group be a problem for a Christian majority?

George Yancey

George Yancey

The concern arises from this being an elite small group with great formative power in our society due to wealth, along with influential positions in education, government, law courts, entertainment, journalism and media. The group forms an influential, and sometimes censoring, core of the “talking class” in our world. Yancey explains: “If you want to get elected to political office, then atheists are at a disadvantage since more people do not like them. But if you want to get a higher education, then you will run into a lot more people with power who hate Christians than who hate atheists.”

How are the findings on Christianophobia helpful?

Firstly, the study validates the experience of Christians who encounter anti-religious bigotry. There is a tendency, even among Christians, to minimize reports of those who experience anti-Christian hostility. I recall one Christian commenting on the movie God’s Not Dead, which follows the experience of a college freshman who encounters blatant and dogmatic attacks on his faith from his Philosophy professor. Her comment was, “The premise is so lame. That does not happen.” Unfortunately, this Christian is socially desensitized to the plight of her fellow believers. It really does happen, and is not merely accidental to academic life. It even happened to the present writer who was shocked speechless by one Professor of Anthropology’s hostile off the wall rant directed his way. Fortunately, a Jewish Anthropology graduate teaching assistant took up for me and redeemed the day. The study by Yancey and Williamson puts all this in reliable perspective. There is measurable anti-Christian hostility in our society.

Secondly, it is a matter of being truthful about what is going on in our time and place. The study documents “that some level of Christianophobia is present among certain powerful subcultures in our society. This helps us understand some actions in our society.”

Thirdly, in Yancey’s words: “People do not like to admit that they are biased or bigoted but often those disaffinities come out in other ways. Because of the attention rightly paid to bigotry . . . there is social pressure on those who take actions that may harm those groups to engage in introspection to make sure they are not being unfair.

I have seen a dearth of such introspection by those who make decisions that may harm Christians. I hope that this work will encourage such critical thinking among those with Christianophobia and perhaps help some to confront a bigotry they did not realize they possessed.”

Give me a good illustration of what’s going on in America!

The last question for Yancey during his Christian Post interview offers a helpful illustration. (I used editorial license to convert one phrase from crass to non-offensive.)

CP: Sociologist Peter Berger famously remarked that if Sweden is the most secular country and India is the most religious country, America has become a nation of Indians ruled by Swedes. [Berger] added how many of the problems of America have to do with the fact that the Indians have become increasingly angry at the Swedes. In some ways, your book seems to present a correlate to that: the Swedes have become increasingly angry at the Indians. Do you agree?

Yancey: I think that is a great way to think about it. I would put it this way: Because of their numbers the Indians historically had a lot of political and cultural power in our society. They may not be in the elite political positions but the Swedes in those positions could not afford to ignore what they wanted. The Swedes for years documented the excesses and biases of the Indians. Over time, they begin to look down on the Indians. But they also gained educational and cultural power and begin to ignore the concerns of the Indians. But the Swedes never considered that many of the social processes that produce bigotries in the Indians also can produce bigotries in themselves. They became quite adept at seeing social dysfunctions in the Indians but not in themselves. While part of the reason for this book is to provide some insight to protect the Indians, I also see it useful for helping the Swedes engage in the introspection they need to deal with their own failings and to live by their own stated values.


For more information, besides reading their book, there is a three-part interview with George Yancey starting here:
http://www.patheos.com/blogs/blackwhiteandgray/2014/11/christianophobia-in-the-united-states-part-1/


** As always, the opinions expressed in this blog are solely those of the author and in no way reflect the philosophies or principles of Williamson County Public Library, its staff members, their parents, children, friends, or housepets.

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Two New Books for Privacy

By Lance Hickerson, Reference Department

61McfPOZDqLAs discussed in my previous article, it’s important to keep your information safe. In addition to good advice online, there are some new books in the library that might be of interest to our patrons. One is entitled, 99 Things You Wish You Knew Before … Your Identity Was Stolen (The 99 Series, 2014) by Robert Siciliano. The author provides clear explanations concerning types of identity theft as well as ways to protect yourself online.

He covers “99 Things” in the form of questions, like, for instance question # 18: “How would Cybercriminals Go After Me?” His answer includes the following:

  • If the wireless Internet connection in your home or office is not secure, you’re vulnerable.
  • If the operating system on your computer is not up to date, you’re vulnerable.
  • If the browser on your computer is outdated, you’re vulnerable.
  • If, while on your own computer, you visit risky websites or online gaming sites that are hosted in foreign countries, you’re vulnerable.
  • If you download pirated software, movies, or music, you’re vulnerable.
  • If you engage in illicit activities on the Internet, you’re vulnerable.
  • Even if all of your security software is updated, if you enter credit card information into a website that is not properly secured, you’re vulnerable.
  • If you enter your Social Security Number into a website that is not properly secured, you’re vulnerable.
  • If you provide you data to a company that believes they are fully secure, but whose employees might open phishing email that can compromise their entire network, you’re vulnerable”   (pp. 30-31).

Throughout the book, the author relates a wealth of data, like the following regarding simple passwords: “When 32 million passwords were exposed in a breach last year, almost 1 percent of victims were using 123456. The next most popular password was 12345. Other common choices are 111111, princess, qwerty, and abc123. Avoid these types of passwords, which are easily guessed” (p. 166).

51V1ngQ19JL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_A second new book of interest to our patrons is Cyber self-defense : expert advice to avoid online predators, identity theft, and cyberbullying (Lyons Press, 2014) by Alexis Moore and Laurie Edwards. The book is rich in practical insight and personality profiles helping readers identify persons of concern. In discussing “How to Avoid Becoming a Cyberattack Victim,” she gives several pages of helpful action steps. Among her suggestions:

  • Install spyware protection.
  • Create a junk mail account.
  • Use special screen and email names.
  • Do not fill out all the fields when registering online.
  • Read and monitor privacy policies.
  • Ask friends and family to be cautious about posting your private information.
  • Choose unusual answers for your security questions.
  • Don’t open emails or click on links from strangers.
  • Use only a secure, designated PC for online banking.
  • If you think you have a cyberstalker, move fast. (pp. 161 – 165).

Author Robert Siciliano above points out two important numbers: the average time victims spend repairing their lives from new fraudulent accounts is 165 hours, while the average time victims spent repairing their existing accounts is 58 hours (p. 9). Just a few minutes of prevention following tips from these two books could save hours of cure.

Choose Privacy

By Lance Hickerson, Reference DepartmentPAW-poster-02-AW

The beginning of May is set aside for observing Choose Privacy Week. This is a time we ask our patrons to consider ways to protect their private information while using the internet, whether in the library, on the go, or at home.

It’s no secret why privacy is a pressing concern these days. As more and more people across the world spend more and more time on the internet, some users make a career of stealing personal data. This causes major complications for those affected.   In just the year 2008, identity theft cost Americans $54 billion in loss. Further, the average amount of time victims spent repairing the damage done by the creation of new fraudulent accounts is 165 hours.  Protecting our private information is important.

What are some basic tips to follow?   Here are a few from the site OnGuardOnLine.

  • Use Security Software That Updates Automatically
  • Treat Your Personal Information Like Cash
  • Check Out Companies to Find Out Who You’re Really Dealing With
  • Give Personal Information Over Encrypted Websites Only
  • Protect Your Passwords
  • Back Up Your Files

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What are some basic privacy tips to remember when I’m using the computer in the library?  The American Library Association suggests the following:

  • Delete you browsing history
  • Log Out of all accounts
  • “Remember me” NOT: Make sure the remember me function is NOT enabled on a public computer.
  • Look for the “s”: Make sure sites are security enabled. Look for websites with https:// or “shttp://” which means the site takes extra measures to secure your information. Http:// is not secure.
  • Get savy about Wi-Fi hotspots: to protect your information do not conduct personal transactions requiring person data such as banking on Wi-Fi hotspots or public computers. Wait to conduct these on a private home computer.

 I’ll be providing more tips soon to help people keep their information safe.  In the meantime, stay safe.

Making the Most of the Online Kid’s Page: TEL4U

By Lance Hickerson, Reference Assistant

The Kid’s Page has some very helpful homework tools, such as TEL4U.1

You can use TEL4U to answer questions like the following:

  1. What if I need access to a good source of information like the World Book Encyclopedia?
  2. Is there an encyclopedia that plays to the level of younger students?
  3. Is there a place I can find games for children to play?
  4. Is there a place for phonics? I want my child to practice sounding out words and practicing phonics skills.
  5. Where can I go to get Homework Help?

 

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1. What if I need access to a good source of information like the World Book Encyclopedia?2

No problem. Go to the free online source on the Kids Page from the Tennessee Library Association called TEL4U. Check out the Home Screen below which shows links to eBooks, Homework Helpers, Look it Up, Tennessee State History, and Games & Activities. This is especially for grades K – 5. (For older children notice the Teenagers link.) The easiest way to get into the World Book Encyclopedia is to click on Look It Up and then choose World Book Student. Enter a word or phrase to find articles on what interests you.

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2. Is there an encyclopedia that plays to the level of younger students?

Younger students, K thru 2nd grade might enjoy getting to their age friendly Encyclopedia through eBooks and the Early World of Learning. To get to the Encyclopedia, Click on eBooks and open the first eBook called “Early World of Learning.”3

The link opens into a delightful Early World of Learning page with things to Read, Play, Watch, and to Print & Do. These are full of information and of interest. And don’t miss clicking on the frog. But to get to the illustrated Encyclopedia, go to the bottom left of the Early World of Learning page and click on Worldbook Products.4

After clicking on World Book Products, choose the top right option: Info Finder.5

Info Finder opens into the Encyclopedia. Enjoy browsing the many options.6

Bonus: What happens when I click on the Early World of Learning frog?7

It takes us to Nursery Rhymes, Songs, and Story Corner!8

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3. Is there a place I can find games for children to play?
TEL4U has a link called Games & Activities for several sites with games.games

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4. Is there a place for phonics? I want my child to practice sounding out words and practicing phonics skills.
Yes. The Starfall.com site under ebooks.10

From the TEL4U homepage click on eBooks. Then choose Starfall.com.

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5. Where can I go to get Homework Help?
Click on Homework Helpers from TEL4U home page. This opens access to four sites that offer help with homework.12

What’s in the databases for homework help?

A) The Internet Public Library for Kids aims to be online information you can trust.13

B) The World Book Kids is a geat place to start. See info above on encyclopedias.
C) The Learning Express Library is very popular with adults, but it also has homework practice in math skills and reading comprehension for elementary students.14

D) Kids InfoBits is an exciting database designed especially for students in kindergarten through grade 5. It is part of the TEL4U site, but also has its own direct link on the Library Kids page.15

For instance, a student could click on Music and Movies, then choose Popular Movies. The student would then see the list of movies which are covered as seen below.16

If the student chose “The Chronicles of Narnia,” the following information would be seen:17

If the student chooses to learn about People, the following would appear as options:18

In addition to the above options, there are also other areas for study.
Students will benefit from this accessible database for homework assignments or simply browsing from curiosity.19

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11 Free Ways to Enjoy the Holidays at the Williamson County Public Library

By Lance Hickerson, Reference Library Assistantd9890eccdf1d0946cb63a759e5745ba8

  1. Mood Music. Attend a concert of seasonal music by artists like Hannah and Esther DeLadurantey and the Eleganza Strings presenting a Family Christmas Concert on harp and violin.
  2. Come and see Santa with your family, and be sure to bring your cameras for that special photo.
  3. Enjoy a holiday musical like this year’s production of “Cindy’s Magic Snow Globe.”
  4. Take in a holiday movie on the Library’s Big Screen selected Friday Mornings and Thursday evenings.
  5. Save money by borrowing books from the library; and that includes electronic books.
  6. Need a holiday recipe? Take advantage of the library’s entire of wall of cookbooks as well as using our Zinio connection to read cooking magazines free online.
  7. What about some DIY Crafts for that personal touch in gifts? Attend a craft class in making bead bracelets or Christmas tree ornaments.   You might also want to see the good DIY books, ready to borrow for your special project.
  8. Tech Tune-up! Take time out to learn more about computers and technology by attending classes like Microsoft Word, Excel, or our “Appy Hour:” where we learn about choosing the best apps for your tablet or Ipad.
  9. It’s family time. Learn about your family history in a class taught by library archivists called, “Introduction to Ancestry.com.”
  10. Enjoy the special activities for teens, like the Teen Cookie Decorating Party.
  11. Learn French (or German, or Spanish, Italian, Mandarin and more) for your next vacation or just for fun with the library’s free online language program called “Powerspeak.”

Bonus: Find a perfect holiday gift at a reasonable price from the Library’s Academy Park Press. Available at the main library circulation desk are the children’s book, Bucky and Bonnie’s Library Adventure, and the recently published: Bullets and Bayonets: A Battle of Franklin Primer.

Bird Appreciation Books 101 for Children—Starters

By Lance Hickerson, Reference Assistant

My fourth grade elementary school teacher was an avid bird watcher, even when she was teaching class. We might be in the middle of multiplication tables, when a rare bird at the class feeder would turn our attention from the wall-to-wall chalk board to the windows behind us. I had no idea at the time how I was being taught a love of nature in general and of birds in particular. Bird watching has been a highly rewarding hobby ever since.   Since it is only natural to want to pass on a love of nature and birds to the next generation, I am always on the lookout for books in the library that might instill, and maybe even ignite, aviary wonder.

Among the many good books out there, here are a few I came across.

I.   Starting for K-2nd grade:

  1. Feathers For Lunch

Feathers for Lunchby Lois Ehlert (Harcourt, Inc.: 1990, 36 pages)

Storyline: A housecat escapes to the outdoors and encounters twelve species of birds, but is unable to catch even one. Along the way the cat and the reader learn something about each bird, from its appearance to song.

Sideline: The birds are shown by effective cut-paper illustrations. Along with the birds are cut-paper plants common to the bird’s environment.  So a plant book as well as an animal book.

Bonus: Several back pages contain more information on each cut-paper bird

  1. BirdsongsBirdsongs 2

by Betsy Franco and Steve Jenkins {illustrator} (Margaret K. McElderry Books, 2007, 40 pages) Caldecott Honor Medalist

Storyline: The book begins early one morning and goes through to the end of the day identifying some 11 birds and their sounds. The illustrations sport a dimensional appearance due to being refined cut paper designs.

Sideline: There is a counting theme throughout as the birds call out their songs a given number of times. In addition to bird sounds, children can practice counting.

Bonus: The last few pages tell interesting “feathery facts” about the birds.

  1. Aviary Wonders Inc.: Spring Catalogue and Instruction Manual

Aviary Wondersby Kate Samworth {author and illustrator} (Clarion Books: 2014, 32 pages)

Storyline: This wonderfully illustrated book is an imaginary and futuristic catalogue that permits readers to design their own birds. There is more to the bird than most imagine as choices include types of beaks, tails, legs, wings, flight patterns, and colors.

Sideline: The reader learns about various extinct birds in our history. There is an environmental, conservationist theme throughout.

Bonus: By involving the imagination in applying bird anatomy, the reader becomes aware of many various markers that are important for understanding and identifying birds.

  1. Birds: A Guide to Familiar American Birds  A Golden Guide - Birds

by Herbert Zim and Ira Gabrielson {illustrated by James Gordon Irving} (Golden Press: 1987, 160 pages)

Storyline: No story but rather a straightforward and simple guide to 129 birds commonly seen in America. Each bird has its own page and is illustrated by colorful and accurate drawings. The simplicity of this now classic book makes it a wonderful beginner’s guide. It is important to supplement the many photo books available today with artful drawings like here, for the drawings can emphasize significant markings of the bird that photos often do not. For instance, because I had seen the Wood Thrush painting in this book, I was able to recognize a real Wood Thrush in nature several years later.

  1. The New Birder’s Guide to Birds of North America: Peterson Field Guides

A New Birder's Guideby Bill Thompson III {illustrations by Julie Zickefoose and Michael Digiorgio} (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014, 368 pages)

Storyline: No story but a wonderful new beginner’s bird guide to common birds in America. Carefully selected photos and drawings help in positive identification. There is just enough information to make it interesting and useful. It’s the best new beginning bird book to bring into the field with children. It might well become a classic in its own right.

Bonus: Wow Facts are given for each bird disclosing interesting and significant information

Pixels AND Pigments are for Kids

Benefitting from Wildlife Books with Drawings and not Simply Photos  

By Lance Hickerson, Reference Assistant

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A few months ago in the children’s library I stopped abruptly upon glimpsing a book on the shelf that I had not seen since childhood. It was my very first bird book, the Golden Press Guide, Birds. Certainly it had an updated cover, but inside were many of the same drawings that started my birding in the fourth grade. Alongside the classic book were other bird guides for children. Some of them, like Birds A to Z by Chris Earley, contain clear and close up photos of the same birds covered by drawings in the Golden Guide. It was then that a question arose: Why have a bird book with drawings when you can have one with well-done photos? Aren’t we in the digital age? Why had Golden Press continued to use drawings when so many good photos were now available?

At first I thought the answer might be that the latest version of the Golden Guide continued to use drawings for cost-saving reasons. But near the Golden Guide were newer books like the World Book Science and Nature Guide to Birds, and the Usborne Spotter’s Guide to Birds, both full of detailed drawings and no photos. Is there something about drawings that photos cannot do?

I asked a similar question some years back to a talented painter who trained at Parsons and traveled to Nice, France each year creating Matisse-like water colors that hang on walls the world over. My question to her was this: “Why would anyone want a painted portrait, when they could hire a good photographer to do the same?” Her answer was instructive. She explained that a painting is able to express things a photograph might only accidentally show. A painting can reveal marks of character that endure over time, those aspects of heart that a single photographic instance will often miss. And that is why good portrait artists continue to get commissions, like Paul Emsley who recently completed a painting of Kate Middleton entitled, Portrait of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.
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Is there a sense in which the principles of portraiture apply to pictures of animals in general and birds in particular? Do we see good “portrait artists” of birds receiving commissions? The answer surprised me at first. A survey of some of the best bird identification field guides presently available shows that, while some have outstanding photos, others continue to offer painted bird drawings. Among these are The Sibley Guide to Birds, the National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America, and the Peterson Field Guide to Birds of North America.

The lead artist for the National Geographic book, Jonathan Alderfer, comments on using illustrations versus photography. “Even though a series of photographs can reveal minute details, most birders eventually come to realize that illustrations are more helpful than photographs in a field guide. Art distills the image of a bird into what our brains experience rather than what a camera sees in a single instant, and illustrations are much easier to compare … “

David Allen Sibley recently released an update to his 2000 best seller, The Sibley Guide to Birds. He was interviewed by The Wall Street Journal (Ellen Gamerman, “Bird-World Star David Allen Sibley Releases New Guide,” March 12, 2014) which reveals the following:

A perpetual researcher, Mr. Sibley brings his binoculars everywhere, even to the gas station. He is always sketching in the field, a process he calls “interviewing the bird,” which he said allows him to internalize each bird’s gestures and shapes.

The Sibley guide has one main purpose: to help identify and differentiate more than 900 species. Mr. Sibley’s birds aren’t the most lifelike . . . but instead demonstrate the most essential traits of a species.

“Sibley’s achievement has been to draw birds not as they are but as they appear to the birder trying to identify them,” novelist Jonathan Franzen, an avid birder, wrote in an email. “They’re brilliant drawings of ideas, of what the birder needs to be seeing.”

In all this there is a strong irony. One of the greatest bird artists of all time has a wonderful society by his name (Audubon) that publishes an indispensable bird guide full of photographs. But as we have seen, others continue the drawing tradition that even today plays a significant role in acquainting us with nature. Bird watching is an increasingly popular hobby with presently around 47 million Americans participating. If the latest Golden Guide to birds (Birds of North America, Golden Field Guide from St. Martin’s Press) becomes our childrens’ first bird book among so many available, we have done well. There will always be good photos, but drawings can express things photos cannot. It is good that we, and our children, benefit from both.

 

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