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Edgar Allan Poe’s Strange Death

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

Edgar Allan Poe, famous American author and the first American writer of mysteries, was a mystery himself.  His death is still a mystery.  Not that he died, of course, but exactly how and why.

Poe had never been wealthy from his writings.  From time to time he did well, but the money was gone sooner or later.  One of the problems was the lack of copyright laws.  Anyone could publish his works, poems and short stories, and that person would reap the benefits, not Poe.  And this happened quite often.  His “detective” stories were very popular—everyone wanted to make money from them.  He was, after all, the father of the mystery genre.  There would be no Sherlock Holmes without Poe.

He had to drop out of the University of Virginia for lack of funds (his step-father didn’t give him enough money to complete the year).  He was so poor that he had to burn his dorm furniture to stay warm!! He was engaged to marry Elmira Royster, but when he went to visit her after his first and last year of college, she had become engaged to someone else.  He went back to Baltimore to throw himself upon the mercy of his relatives.  His aunt, Maria Clemm, took him in; she also had a daughter, Virginia, whom Poe developed a passion for.  A job took him to Richmond, VA; there he became the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger.  He became known for his criticisms of authors and their works. He was usually correct, but in this time where for a bribe critics wrote good criticism, he stood out as honest, but also made enemies.  He made one in the Reverend Rufus Griswold.

Virginia Clemm

We have to set the scene a little:  Poe had been living in Richmond, VA, with his Aunt Maria, and his wife, Virginia, who died from Tuberculosis at age 24.  (He had married her when she was 15.)  He was devastated when she died, and didn’t write anything for months.  He was in demand as a speaker and was trying to set up a new literary magazine which he would be editor of.  He returned to Richmond to visit Elmira Royster, the fiancée who had jilted him.  He learned that she was a widow and asked for her hand in marriage (again.)

Poe was on his way to Philadelphia from Richmond to edit some poems for a Mrs. St. Leon Loud.  Then he was to go to New York and bring his aunt down to be with him for his wedding.  His fiancée told him he looked ill, and he did go see a doctor.  Dr. Carter suggested he delay his trip a few days, but he went anyway.  He never made it to either city.  Somehow he ended up in Baltimore, delirious and ill, in dirty ragged clothing, obviously not his own, without any luggage.

He was found outside of a polling place and bar – it was an election day, and this bar was a pop-up station.  You went to vote (correction – the men got to vote) and then have a drink or two.  The man who found Poe recognized him, and sent a letter to a friend of Poe’s, Joseph Snodgrass, who, luckily, had had some medical training. A letter was sent asking him to come at once.  His own person doctor, Dr. Moran, also cared for him as he lay dying.  He spent four days in and out of fever, never able to explain what happened to him.  He did say one word, “Reynolds!!” but no one ever found out who he meant to call for.  He was said to have said out loud, “Lord, help my poor soul,” and died.  As to what cause his death? There are many theories, but no true cause of death was ever found.

As to what might have killed him?  Here is a list of possibilities

  • He could have been mugged, and died from his injuries (there is such a thing called cooping, a form of ballot-box stuffing which involved kidnapping and taking the person to vote at many polling places—many have dismissed this because Poe would have been too well recognized)
  • He could have ingested some kind of poison, either by his own hand of by someone else’s (In 2006, doctors test a sample of his hair and found no evidence of lead or metal poisoning)
  • He could have died from alcoholism – even though he was known to drink moderately.  Like many authors, coffee was his drug for writing late into the night
  • He could have been murdered – this seems to be a bit farfetched since he was in the hospital for four days, but it could have happened
  • He could have died from suicide complications (but why, he was getting married in ten days?)
  • He could have died of rabies or epilepsy
  • He could have died of carbon monoxide poisoning – no one was aware of this issue, and he was known to have burned anything to keep warm
  • He could have had a heart attack, diabetes or even cholera
  • He could even have died from rabies

No autopsy was performed—he was buried two days after he died, and evidently there was a great frenzy to have a lock of his hair as he was taken to the cemetery.  No one has ever found a death certificate—it could have been lost or stolen by Dr. Moran or anyone seeking to have a piece of the great man Poe.  He was buried in an unmarked grave; a headstone was later added, but was destroyed in a wreck.  He was reburied in 1875, with the remains of his wife, Virginia and Aunt Maria.

One final insult to Poe’s memory was the obituary published anonymously, later known to have been written by Reverend Griswold.  Griswold was still very mad at Poe, and in his obituary described Poe as a drunk, a womanizer and a man with no morals.  Unfortunately, this was considered Poe’s real character for over a century, until people began to learn more about what kind of person he really had been.  Unfortunately for Griswold, he never became as famous as Poe, which was all he wanted. Read the rest of this entry

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Edgar Alan Poe’s The Raven

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

Paul_Gustave_Dore_Raven14Edgar Allan Poe finished his popular and unique poem The Raven in January 1845. Set on a cold December night, it makes perfect sense that it was released in January. It made him famous, but not what he also craved to be, rich.

Poe chose a raven as the central symbol in the story because he wanted a “non-reasoning” creature capable of speech. He decided on a raven, which he considered “equally capable of speech” as a parrot, because it matched the intended tone of the poem. Poe said the raven is meant to symbolize “Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance”. He was also inspired by Grip, the raven in Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of ‘Eighty by Charles Dickens.

Poe really knows how to create a mood, to make his reader feel the shadows, the creepy noises in the room, the croak of the bird. This is a poem that pulls you into a moment. Like anything that scares you in a fun way, this is all about making you feel like you are experiencing the story while you read it. It’s spooky and a little spine-tingling, like a good horror movie. It’s fun to read – it’s meant to be read out loud. Try it and see how satisfying these lines are when they roll off the tongue. He’s trying to make his poem as musical, hypnotic, and captivating as possible. All of this complicated rhyme and rhythm aims at drawing you more completely into the world of the poem.

It’s interesting to think that people have been excited (and scared) by stories like this for hundreds of years. Folks in the 19th century read Poe for the same reasons we read Stephen King: that creepy thrill in reading about scary things happening to other people. When you read a story about someone slowly losing his mind, you might be horrified, but it’s also pretty hard to put it down.

And now a little about Poe the man:

Edgar_Allan_Poe_2He was born to traveling actors in Boston on January 19, 1809. By the age of three both of his parents had died, and he was taken in by the wealthy tobacco merchant John Allan and his family in Richmond, Virginia. Mr. Allan tried to raise him in his own image as a businessman and a Virginia gentleman, but Poe had dreams of being a writer like his childhood hero, Lord Byron. By the age of thirteen, Poe had compiled enough poetry to publish a book.

In 1826 Poe attended the University of Virginia, where he excelled in his classes while accumulating considerable debt. To teach him frugality, he was sent to college with less than a third of the money he needed, so he soon took up gambling to raise money to pay his expenses. By the end of his first term Poe was so desperately poor that he burned his furniture to keep warm. Angry and humiliated by his poverty, he returned to Richmond to visit the home of his fiancée, only to discover she was engaged to another man. Heartbroken, he left Richmond, vowing to become a great poet and to find adventure. He published his first book Tamerlane by age eighteen and then he enlisted in the United States Army. Two years later he heard that Mrs. Allan, the only mother he had ever known, was dying of tuberculosis, who was hoping to see him before she died. By the time Poe returned to Richmond she had died and had already been buried. He and Allan briefly reconciled, and Allan helped him gain an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point.

Before going to West Point, Poe published another volume of poetry. While there he found out that Allan had remarried without telling him or even inviting him to the ceremony. He threatened to get himself expelled from the academy. His wish came true; after only eight months at West Point he was thrown out, but he soon published another book.

Virginia Clemm

Virginia Clemm

Broke and alone, Poe turned to Baltimore, hoping to find relatives in the city to stay with. His aunt, Maria Clemm, became a new mother to him and welcomed him into her home.  Her daughter Virginia first acted as a courier to carry letters to his lady loves but soon became the object of his desire.  He started publishing his short stories; one won a contest sponsored by the Saturday Visiter. This allowed him to publish more stories and eventually gain an editorial position at the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond. He had found a home as a magazine writer.  In 1836, when he was twenty-seven, he married Virginia (she was 13!). After six plus years of marriage, his beloved wife died of tuberculosis. (1847) No wonder he wrote of dark and depressing things. His life was depressing. And all his life he was a true, starving artist.

He kept trying to find a better paying job, moving to Philadelphia and to New York, but it wasn’t until he published The Raven that he began to be a household name. Unfortunately, he only lived another two years after his wife died, dying from mysterious causes (still unknown, even to this day) at the age of forty-nine in Baltimore. Oddly enough, after his death he finally became more famous because of author Rufus Griswold. Poe strongly criticized his works, so upon Poe’s death Griswold struck back, but it backfired. It only made Poe more popular.

Interesting facts:

  • Obsessed with cats, Edgar often wrote with a cat on his shoulder.
  • Edgar’s one and only novel Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket was about a boat capsizing and the crew members drawing straws for who would be eaten; they drew straws and ate Richard Parker. The book bombed. Even though Poe said it was a true story, in his time most of the critics didn’t believe him. They were right to think so because at the time Poe’s book wasn’t true, but just 5 years later a similar wreck happened with the same lead character name Richard Parker, but no cannibalism. Then in 1884 there was another shipwreck where there was cannibalism, and the one who was eaten was indeed Richard Parker. (And don’t forget the Tiger in The Life of Pi was named Richard Parker. Concidence?)
  • The Mystery Writers of America have named their award Edgar, after the great E. A. Poe.the-edgars-banner
  • He introduced the first recorded literary detective in “The Murders in the Rue Morgue.” The detective character would lead to become the prototypical detective we know today
  • He was early adopter of the genre of Science Fiction. In 1844, he published “The Balloon” in Sun Newspaper. He described a lighter than air balloon that transversed the Atlantic Ocean in three days. The accounts were so believable that the newspaper had to retract the story two days later. However untrue the story was, the Sun newspaper made a lot of money off of newspapers, and they did not give Poe a cent. From then on, Poe hated the Sun newspaper.
  • “The Raven” was a personal challenge Edgar imposed upon himself. He wanted to write 100 line poem, enough for one sitting. He ended up with 108 lines, which apparently was good enough for Poe.
  • Edgar changed the writing and publishing world. Before Poe, writing was a noble profession where not many were able to make a living off of solely writing. Edgar insisted that writing would be his career, and he made major strides to find an audience for his entertaining articles, which would become the initial spark of the magazine industry. He even was given $1,500 the last week of his life to start a magazine. However, in his life he was plagued by international copycats where he had no protection that we have now with international copyrights. In many ways, he paved the way for writers to be compensated enough to have a career.

 


Sources:poeboy

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