By Katy Searcy, Children’s Department
Let’s talk about the Internet for a minute. I’ll be the first to admit that I don’t know what I would do without the Internet. We have access to information literally at our fingertips, and it’s absolutely fantastic. I love being able to find answers to the random questions zipping through my head. Of course, I don’t have to list off all the benefits of the Internet, and I’m sure I don’t have to tell you the dangers of the Internet either.
The Internet can be a scary place for anyone. There are creeps and weirdos galore, and who knows whether or not our information is really private? It’s tough enough for many adults to navigate, so it’s no wonder we receive lots of requests for books about Internet safety for kids. Kids use a variety of online services, from social media to games, and each one hosts its own safety concerns. Below are a few basic tips parents can be sure to implement no matter how their kids use the Internet, as well as a list of resources to use for talking about Internet safety with kids:
- Keep the computer in a high-traffic area of your home.
- Establish limits for which online sites kids can visit and for how long.
- Remember that the Internet is mobile, so make sure to monitor cell phones, gaming devices, and laptops.
- Surf the Internet with your children and let them show you what they like to do online.
- Know who is connecting with your children online and set rules for social media, instant messaging, email, online gaming, and using webcams.
- Continually talk with your children about online safety.
The following websites provide more in depth tips and suggestions for talking about Internet safety with children:
- A program of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, NetSmartz Workshop provides interactive, age-appropriate resources to help teach children how to be safe online. This website features videos, games, presentations, and other activities for kids ages 5 through 17, as well as guides for parents and educators.
- PBS Parents is a great resource for information about all aspects of child development and early learning, and the “Children and Media” section is especially helpful for talking to kids about online safety. Featuring numerous articles and age-by-age tips for helping children and teens get the most out of media and technology, this website provides information for parents of children ages 3 through 18.
- Common Sense Media is a non-profit organization that provides information and advice to help parents navigate the issues surrounding raising children in the digital age. The website’s extensive FAQ section features questions from real parents that are broken down by age group or topic.
And finally, here’s a list of books we have here at WCPL about Internet safety and security for both kids and parents:
- “Berenstain Bears’ Computer Trouble” (part of 5 Minute Berenstain Bears Stories) (J E BERENSTAIN)
- Savvy Cyber Kids (J E HALPERT)
- What Does It Mean to be Safe? (J E DIORIO)
- Online Privacy (J 005.8 MAR)
- Safe Social Networking (J 006.754 LIN)
- The Smart Girl’s Guide to the Internet: How to Connect with Friends, Find What You Need, and Stay Safe Online (J 006.754083 CIN) American Girl nonfiction
- A Smart Kid’s Guide to Social Networking Online (J 006.754083 JAK)
- Information Insecurity: Privacy Under Siege (YA 323.448 JAN)
- iRules: What Every Tech-Healthy Family Needs to Know About Selfies, Sexting, Gaming, and Growing Up (004.678083 HOF)
- Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives (302.2310835 PAL)
- It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens (302.30285 BOY)
- How to Protect Your Children on the Internet: A Roadmap for Parents and Teachers (305.235 SMI)
- Cyber Self-Defense: Expert Advice to Avoid Online Predators, Identity Theft, and Cyberbullying (613.602854678 MOO)
By Lon Maxwell, Reference Department
On November 2, 1947 the Hughes H-4 Hercules drifted out of its hanger in Long Beach Harbor at the end of a tow rope pulled by a small boat. The authorities had cleared the water so the massive flying boat could do some taxi tests. Hughes, taking a break from congressional testimony over his government contracts (including the $18 million one for the H-4), decided it was time to get the massive plane out and see how she handled on the water. He invited the press and even the members of the committee he was testifying in front of. The politicos didn’t show, but the press did. The first run was a leisurely 40 knots, the second a much more brisk 90 knots. The plane lined up for a third run; Howard Hughes himself at the controls. The eight propellers spun up to speed. The plane lurched forward. Speed increased, and increased, and increased, and then it happened. The eight story tall Hercules took to the air.
To understand what a momentous event this was you need to understand three factors; the times, the plane, and the man.
The early days of America’s involvement in the Second World War were costly, and America hadn’t even declared itself at war. Tons of ships and materials were being sent to the bottom of the Atlantic every month by German U-boats. We needed a way to move a lot of cargo weight a great distance, and to do it quickly. While the ship building industry began to ramp up production to an unequaled pace, some people looked to the skies to transport more. Seaplanes were used far more prevalently than they are now and were far from being a primarily private aviation phenomenon. Military and commercial carriers had sizable seaplanes, carrying upwards of seventy people.
Howard Hughes was a man who thought big. He was brash and arrogant, but also pioneering and adventurous. He was born into privilege, but longed for meaning. He sought that in everything from business, to engineering, to Hollywood to flight. He had the arms of the most beautiful women in the world and the envy of the masses, but he longed for the respect of the powerful.
At the intersection of America’s need and Hughes’ ego was the Hercules. The largest seaplane ever built. A wooden gamble for the Hughes Aircraft Company. A five year project that cost millions of dollars, personal relationships, and congressional intervention.
The call for a new seaplane went out and amongst the bidders was an audacious project. A plane that could carry multiple tanks, hundreds of troops or huge amounts of supplies. It was so crazy it took Hughes himself to sell the project. By this time it was 1942 and the United States was no longer a sideline player in World War Two. This new design of Hughes’s could revolutionize troop deployment and materiel transport. Best of all, it would be easy on the precious commodities of metal and rubber. The Hughes H-4 Hercules would be made of wood. The press thought it was a huge mistake. The Flying Lumberyard and The Spruce Goose were the mocking names the media gave to what they saw as a colossal waste of money and time. Hughes hated the derisive nicknames, especially the Spruce Goose (especially because it was made mostly of birch).
It wasn’t actually Hughes’s brainchild alone. Henry J. Kaiser, a builder of Liberty Ships, came up with the initial idea of a flying cargo ship. Kaiser knew very well that he knew more about hydrodynamics than aerodynamics and that to pull off his enormous plan he would need to get an aircraft builder to help. Hughes was just the man. The problems began to pile up almost immediately. Building a plane mostly from wood solved some of the problem but there were still restrictions on strategic wartime materials like aluminum. The other problem was the partnership. Kaiser was from an industry that ran its production up to unheard of levels during the war. Hughes insisted on perfection over punctuality. The frustrations caused Kaiser to pull his support from the project and caused a rift between the two men from then on. It took sixteen months to go from approval to production start.
Five years after the initial approval, in 1947, Hughes still hadn’t gotten his magnum opus off the ground. The Senate Investigating Committee was looking into the project with a very skeptical eye. The war it was supposed to have helped fight had been over for more than two years. Hughes vowed to the committee that he would prove the plane was not a failure or he would “probably leave this country and never come back.” He left the hearings during a recess, went home and flew the plane on what was supposed to have been a taxi test. It reaches an altitude of seventy feet and was aloft for a single mile. This was all Hughes needed to feel that he had vindicated himself. The plane was moved back to its hanger, kept air ready by a crew of 300 employees, then cut to 50 in 1962 and finally just left in its hanger in 1976 after Hughes died.
The plane remains. You could go and see it in Long Beach, California for many years as it passed from one hand to the next several years until it was finally moved to its current home at the Evergreen Aviation Museum in Oregon. It’s on display for all to come and marvel at the folly and the genius and the audacity of one man’s need to be better than everybody else, and it still has the largest wingspan ever created.
- Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes, Sharpe, Michael YA 629.13334 SHA
- Flight 100 Years of Aviation, Grant, R.G. 629.13009 GRA
- Howard Hughes His Life and Madness, Bartlett, Donald and Steele, James B Hughes
- Howard Hughes The Secret Life, Higham, Charles B Hughes
- Jane’s Encylopedia of Aviation, Taylor, Michael J. H. ed., R 629.13 JAN
- The Timechart History of Aviation, Lowe & B. Hould Publishers, 629.13009 TIM
- Time Magazine (Vol. 50 No. 19) November 10 1947 p27
- Hughes H-4 Hercules (Spruce Goose) at Military Factory https://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=349#specs
by Chelsea Bennett, Reference Department
We did the mash.
We did the monster mash.
We did the mash, and it was a book list smash!
That is to say, we think y’all really liked the books we picked out for October’s monstrous book display. We had to refill it with new books several times! In case you missed it – or want to relive it –, here are the books we featured in October 2018.
- The Casebook of Victor Frankenstein by Peter Ackroyd (F ACK)
- The Loch by Steve Alten (F ALT)
- Aunt Dimity: Vampire Hunter by Nancy Atherton (F ATH)
- Lives of the Monster Dogs by Kirsten Bakis (F BAK)
- I’m the Vampire, That’s Why by Michele Bardsley (F BAR)
- Infernal Parade by Clive Barker (F BARKER)
- Oscar Wilde and the Vampire Murders by Gyles Brandreth (F BRA)
- Vampyrrhic by Simon Clark (F CLA)
- The Gates by John Connolly (F CON)
- Undead and Unwed by Mary Janice Davidson (F DAV)
- The Boy Who Drew Monsters by Keith Donohue (F DONOHUE)
- A Study in Scarlet; The Hound of the Baskervilles by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (F DOYLE)
- Dracula in London by P. N. Elrod, ed. (F DRA)
- Grendel by John Gardner (F GAR)
- Camouflage by Joe Haldeman (F HAL)
- The Monsters of St. Helena by Brooks Hansen (F HAN)
- Sorcerers of the Nightwing by Geoffrey Huntington (F HUN)
- Mazes and Monsters by Rona Jaffe (F JAFFE)
- Cycle of the Werewolf by Stephen King (F KIN)
- Dean Koontz’s Frankenstein, Book One: Prodigal Son by Dean Koontz (F KOO)
- The Black Swan by Mercedes Lackey (F LAC)
- Chasing the Moon by A. Lee Martinez (F MAR)
- Mothers & Other Monsters by Maureen F. McHugh (F MCHUGH)
- The Moon and the Sun by Vonda N. McIntyre (F MCINTYRE)
- You Suck: a love story by Christopher Moore (F MOO)
- The Possessions by Sara Flannery Murphy (F MURPHY)
- Monster by Frank Peretti (F PER)
- Relic by Douglas Preston & Lincoln Child (F PRE)
- A Monster’s Notes by Laurie Sheck (F SHE)
- The New Annotated Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (F SHELLEY)
- A Winter Haunting by Dan Simmons (F SIM)
- The Terror by Dan Simmons (F SIM)
- Sacred Monster by Donald E. Westlake (F WES)
- Sense and Sensibility and Sea Monsters by Ben H. Winters and Jane Austen (F WIN)
- Sustenance by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (F YARBRO)
- Burning Shadows by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (F YARBRO)
- Great Southern Mysteries by E. Randall Floyd (001.940975 FLO)
- American Monsters: a history of monster lore, legends, and sightings in America by Linda S. Godfrey (001.944 GOD)
- Abominable Science! Origins of the Yeti, Nessi, and other famous cryptids by Daniel Loxton and Donald R. Prothero (001.944 LOX)
- Sasquatch: legend meets science by Jeff Meldrum (001.944 MEL)
- Cryptozoology A to Z: the encyclopedia of loch monsters, Sasquatch, Chupacabras, and other authentic mysteries of nature by Loren Coleman & Jerome Clark (001.94403 COL)
- More Haunted Tennessee by Charles Edwin Price (133.1 PRI)
- True Ghost Stories and Eerie Legends from America’s Most Haunted Neighborhood by David Dominé (133.109 DOM)
- The Haunting of the Presidents: a paranormal history of the U.S. presidency by Joel Martin & William J. Birnes (133.10973 MAR)
- Ghosts of Franklin: Tennessee’s most haunted town by Margie Gould Thessin (133.10973 THE)
- The Bell Tower: the case of Jack the Ripper finally solved in San Francisco by Robert Graysmith (364.15 GRA)
- People Who Eat Darkness by Richard Lloyd Parry (364.1523092 PAR)
- Alligators in the Sewer: and 222 other urban legends by Thomas J. Craughwell (398.2 CRA)
- Demon in the Woods: tall tales and true from East Tennessee by Charles Edwin Price (398.2 PRI)
- Living with the Living Dead: the wisdom of the zombie apocalypse by Greg Garrett (398.21 GAR)
- The Zombie Book: the encyclopedia of the living dead by Nick Redfern with Brad Steiger (398.21 RED)
- The Werewolf Book: the encyclopedia of shape-shifting beings by Brad Steiger (398.24 STE)
- Zombies from History by Geoff Holder (398.45 HOL)
- The Werewolf in Lore and Legend by Montague Summers (398.45 SUM)
- How to Make a Zombie: the real life (and death) science of reanimation and mind control by Frank Swain (398.45 SWA)
- Dragons, Unicorns, and Sea Serpents: a classic study of the evidence for their existence by Charles Gould (398.469 GOU)
- Young Frankenstein: the story of the making of the film by Mel Brooks with Rebecca Keegan (791.4372 BRO)
- Doctor Who: Character Encyclopedia by Jason Loborik, Annabel Gibson, and Moray Laing (791.4572 LOB)
- Zombies Have Issues by Greg Stones (818 STO)
- The Complete War of the Worlds: Mars’ invasion of Earth from H.G. Wells to Orson Welles by Brian Holmsten & Alex Lubertozzi, editors (823.912 COM)
- Beowulf: a new verse translation by Seamus Heaney, translator (829.3 BEO)
- The Hidden Hitler by Lothar Machtan (B HITLER)
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Librarian
We all love It’s The Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown, but were you aware that the first Jack O’Lanterns were carved out of turnips?
Did you know that the horrifying mask worn by Michael Myers in the Halloween movie was actually a William Shatner Star Trek mask?
Halloween is the second highest grossing commercial holiday after Christmas. The National Retail Federation (NRF) predicts Halloween spending this year—including candy, costumes, and decorations—will hit $7.4 billion. Candy will account for more than $2 billion of that amount and a quarter of all candy bought in the U.S. is for Halloween.
But what are the origins of this creepy holiday? Here’s what we do know about the history of Halloween: it wasn’t created by the Candy Companies, although they’ve certainly profited, nor was it created by the toilet paper companies (though I do wonder how much money they make with all the teepeeing).
The history of Halloween is a rather vague and confusing tale, mainly because no one can seem to agree on how Halloween evolved from a harvest pagan New Year celebration, to the candy gorging and anything goes costumes of today. One thing that everyone seems to agree on, even though there has never been a proven connection, is that modern Halloween begins with the Celtic festival of Samhain (although, they don’t know much about that either).
Scholars are pretty sure that Samhain was an annual celebration of the end of the harvest months to honor the Celtic deities (as well little green leprechauns and tricky fairies). It was also a time to gather resources and slaughter livestock (or maybe they were sacrifices – who knows) in preparation for the upcoming winter months. Some say it was the Celtic New Year. It was also believed that this was the day that the veil between the dead and living was thinnest, and the dead could cross over. They would celebrate this day with bonfires, food laid out for the dead, and costumes to blend with the spirits. Strangely enough, they’re not sure whether these actions were to honor and welcome the dead or to ward off the visiting spirits. Either way, the dead were a big part of the pagan festival.
The second part of Halloween’s history that seems to be agreed on is the attempted Christianization of a pagan celebration. In the eighth century, Pope Gregory III assigned the Christian feast, All Saints Day, to November 1, as a day was to honor all Christian saints and martyrs. It is generally believed that this edict was meant to cause All Saints Day to replace Samhain. However, instead of killing off the pagan traditions, these two celebrations combined to create All-Hallows Eve. The holiday was no longer about the Celtic deities, or about the Christian Saints. The previously celebrated supernatural creatures were now thought to be evil and the main focus of the holiday was about the wandering dead.
The third fact that seems to be agreed upon is that trick-or-treating came from another two practices that eventually combined. The first is “mumming”, a medieval practice where people would disguise themselves and go door-to-door asking for food in exchange for “tricks” (basically they were putting on shows and clowning around). The second is the practice of leaving out food and offerings for the dead in order to gain favor with them, which is believed to be part of the original Samhain tradition. So basically, we give kids candy in exchange for entertainment, and to satisfy the little goblins that knock on our door.
By Alysia Maxwell, WCPLtn Library
It’s Halloween and that means it’s time for the creepy crawlies and the monsters to come out. Kids are planning their costumes and their routes to the houses that give out the best candy. Houses are decked out in spider webs and eerie lights, and people are reveling in the supernatural and the macabre.
As parents, this time of year can be hard. We often want to protect children from the scariest things out there, but how much do we protect them and how much do we let them experience some of the fun of the season? After all, what is it that we love so much about scary stories? Why do we seek out the things that send prickles down our spine? As adults we think that it’s that rush of adrenaline that comes from our senses being on high alert; but it’s more than that. It’s also the relief that floods your body when you realize there’s not really someone hiding the closet. It’s the calm that washes away the fear when you know you are not in danger; everything is fine. You are safe.
That’s what it really comes down to, not the fear, but the feeling of safety. No one actually wants to be scared all the time. We seek it out when feeling safe becomes too commonplace, too work-a-day, too boring. We chase that rush of fear so that we can appreciate that feeling of tranquility again.
Kids are searching for that too, although they may not realize it. The whole world is big and scary to them and they need to feel that reassurance as much as adults do, possibly even more so. Of course, every kid is different and what barely startles one might be too much for another. I’m not telling you to traumatize your children, but don’t shy away from letting them read something that might be a little scary. Let them experience those shivers so they can feel safe again. What could possibly be safer than being snuggled up warm with mom and dad reading a book together? Here are some great stories to read with your kids that will give you both the shivers.
Wolves in the Walls by Neil Gaiman; Lucy hears noises coming from inside the walls. She is sure that there are wolves in the walls, but her family doesn’t believe it. They tell her, “If the wolves come out of the walls, it’s all over”. This picture book is great for a younger crowd because it is punctuated with humorous moments that break up the tension. When the wolves finally do come out of the walls they end up doing silly things like wearing Lucy’s socks and eating toast and jam. This story says to kids that the thing they are afraid of may turn out to be not as bad as they think, and maybe even something they can handle just fine.
Another Gaiman gem for slightly older kids is Coraline. Yes, it is a movie and a graphic novel, both of which are fantastic – but for me, nothing beats the original novel. Something about the way the light glints off the button eyes of the Other Mother is so sinister and frightening. Here is a story that is precisely that search for excitement and return to safety. Coraline is bored with her uneventful life, but her search for adventure ends up more than she bargained for. When she goes exploring the house and finds a mysteriously (sometimes) bricked up doorway it leads her to a very unnerving and terrifying version of her own life. It hits kids close to home with a seemingly idyllic family trying to steal her away from her real family. And no adult comes to her rescue. Coraline is the heroine of her own story and must rescue herself as well as her parents. What better way to empower a child than to show them they can face their own fear and conquer it.
The Jumbies by Tracey Baptiste is a wonderfully spooky story based on Caribbean folklore. There are menacing creatures in the woods with glowing eyes and dark intentions. Corinne believes they are just stories made up to get children to behave, but maybe they are not made up after all. There is a witch whose beauty and attractiveness give her an ominous quality, especially when she tries to insert herself into Corinne’s family. Once again the children are the ones who have to confront that which they fear and defeat it. Baptiste gives us fresh monsters to fuel the imagination.
Scarlett Hart Monster Hunter by Marcus Sedgwick reads more like an adventure story than a terror filled one, however this graphic novel does feature zombies, gargoyles and all sorts of otherworldly foes as well as a very earthly one as well. Scarlett’s got grit and gadgets and her own faithful retainer (sort of like Batman’s Alfred) to help her bring down the baddies.
Guys Read: Terrifying Tales collected by Jon Scieszka is a great compilation of middle grade short stories by various authors including, among others, the master of kids’ horror himself R.L. Stein of Goosebumps fame. These are fun for reading quick stories each night (under the covers of course!)
The Prince of Mist by Carlos Ruiz Zafon. Parents may have read his beautiful Shadow of the Wind, but this oft overlooked YA title is particularly disturbing. Max and his sister Alicia move to a small town and soon discover their new house holds a dark secret from the past. They must uncover the mystery of a spectral creature who is trying to collect an old debt. If the weeping angels in Doctor Who send a chill up your spine this one is right up your alley.
The fun of Halloween is allowing ourselves to feel that delicious prickle of fear followed by the reassurance that we are not about to be eaten after all! So grab a book and a flashlight, pull the blankets over your heads, and have fun reading these scary stories!
By Shannon Owens, Reference Department
We can all recite the poem: “In fourteen hundred ninety two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue”…I know, I know, I can see your eyes rolling from here. Christopher Columbus, born in Genoa (like the salami) Italy, is frequently credited with “discovering” the New World (aka: The Americas). This is a rather dubious claim, given that Viking explorer, Leif Erikson, landed in Newfoundland and Labrador a good 500 years before Columbus went about destroying indigenous Caribbean culture (I digress). It’s impossible to say why Columbus remains ingrained in our history books and general psyche, whilst Erikson is relegated to a footnote, but I would hazard a guess here: American culture is profoundly impacted by Western European culture, whereas Nordic culture remains a mystery. It certainly wouldn’t be the only factor, but I imagine this is not insignificant.
Nevertheless, it’s worthwhile to take a closer look at the man who gives us parades, bank holidays, time off from work, and downright incredible retail sales (I’m eyeing a pair of gorgeous boots being sold at a fifty percent markdown as we speak, so kudos, Cristobol)! Mr. Columbus was a marine entrepreneur (read: seaman) who was obsessed with finding a western route to China, India, and the spice and gold islands of Asia. Here’s where we run into another common misconception: Lore suggests that the entire world thought the world was flat at this time and Columbus was the renegade willing to challenge this idea. Nearly all educated Europeans knew the Earth was round. This wasn’t even a recent revelation. Around the sixth century BC, Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, theorized that the Earth was round, and about two centuries later Aristotle concurred with his findings. So, no, Columbus’ crew was not terrified that they’d fall off the edge of the world (despite what Washington Irving would have you believe).
Columbus was barely successful finding anybody who would fund this venture. It took nearly a decade to find a backer (monarchies in England, Portugal, and France had all refused) and Spain was not an easy mark, either. In fact, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand had once declined before changing their minds in the eleventh hour. Still, Columbus was granted his fleet and crew, comprised of three ships: the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria (two of which actually had different names…Spain was an extremely Catholic country and named all their ships after saints…Pinta was a nickname translated as “the painted one” and the Nina was actually the Santa Clara). This joint venture could prove mutually beneficial: Isabella and Ferdinand could gain power while exporting Catholicism to locals and Columbus’ contract guaranteed him ten percent of any riches he found and a noble title.
On October 12th, the expedition reached land (probably Watling Island in the Bahamas). Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba (which he thought was China) and finally in December, the expedition landed on Hispaniola (Columbus surmised that this must be Japan). Here, he established a settlement of 39 men, and went about his business, terrorizing the locals (the Taino people, though Columbus referred to them as Indians). In March of 1493, he left the settlement and returned to Spain. Nearly six months later, he returned to Hispaniola to find the settlement destroyed. To this day, nobody knows exactly what happened. Columbus traveled island to island, and since he couldn’t seem to find the riches he had boasted of to his patrons, he sent Isabella 500 slaves instead. This was downright horrifying to the Queen, who believed these people were now Spanish citizens, and she swiftly rebuked Columbus for his monstrous actions.
In 1498, Columbus embarked on his third journey to the New World. First, he visited Trinidad and then South America before returning to the settlement in Hispaniola (which he had left his two brothers in charge of this time). Once again, it was decimated, but this time it was by the colonists themselves who had revolted against their leaders. It would seem that brutality and mismanagement run in the family. Spain sent new governorship and Columbus returned to Europe in in chains, arrested for the goings on. By 1502, Columbus had been cleared of most charges (although stripped of noble titles he had received previously) and the Spanish monarchy funded one last trip to the New World. It was an unmitigated disaster. Columbus made it all the way to Panama and then promptly abandoned four ships when they came under attack by natives. Columbus returned, bereft, to Spain, where he died in 1506.
It would seem that the man’s lasting legacy was one of abuse, brutality and ultimately, felony. He enslaved locals and introduced diseases that decimated the remaining indigenous populations. Other European countries hopped on the colonial bandwagon, which created environment change along with the borderline theft of local natural resources. He is blamed, not unfairly, for biological warfare. Interestingly, the phrase “Columbian Exchange” is used by historians to describe the exchange of plants, animals, and goods between the East and West. On the other hand, advocates could make the point that his legacy underlines the importance and history of the Age of Exploration. It’s globalization in its earliest form. Obviously, his actions cannot all be discounted as negative. Perhaps his lasting legacy is a cautionary tale on the grandest scale.
By Sharon Reily, Reference Department
Most of us don’t realize how much food we waste each year. It’s awfully easy to toss leftovers and less-than-perfect produce into the trash. Wasted food numbers are staggering. It’s estimated that in the U.S., 72 billion pounds of still-usable food (worth $218 billion) goes to waste each year and that approximately 25 to 40 percent of food grown, processed, and transported in the U.S. will never be consumed. Much of this food that is still safe and edible could be used to feed hungry families or be composted. But according to the EPA, approximately 94 percent of it ends up in landfills, where it takes up a lot of space and generates methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Let’s take a look at a few simple things we can all do to help reduce food waste, and then focus on one of the best methods of utilizing uneaten food – composting.
Several local organizations are on a mission to “rescue” unused food to feed hungry families and divert it from landfills by methods such as composting. Second Harvest Food Bank and the Nashville Food Waste Initiative work with businesses, food service companies, farmers, and individuals to gather food before it goes to waste, distribute it to groups serving the hungry, and keep it out of landfills. Sustainable America suggests ways to become involved in food rescue. Their websites (listed at the end of this article) offer a wealth of information about how we can help in these efforts.
On a smaller scale, there are lots of ways we can reduce food waste in our own homes, and most of them rely on plain old common sense:
- Plan weekly shopping lists carefully to avoid buying too much food. Think of all the money we can save if we buy only as much food as we can use.
- Consider how many meals we’ll eat at home in a week versus the times we’ll eat out.
- Think about how many meals can be made with each food item and shop accordingly. Don’t buy in bulk unless all the food can be used before it spoils.
- Learn how to store different fruits and vegetables properly to keep them fresh longer and preserve or freeze what can’t be used immediately.
- Shop in the fridge first! Use what’s already there before buying more.
- Learn the difference between “sell by,” “use by” and “best by” dates.
- Get creative using safe edible food parts not usually eaten, such as vegetable scraps, in casseroles, stir-fries, and soups.
Some inedible food will remain even with careful planning, but much of it can still be diverted from landfills. One great way is to compost. Most of us can create a compost pile in our own backyards or at least collect waste material to be taken to a composting facility, such as Compost Nashville.
Benefits of Composting
Compost is simply decomposed organic material and composting is the natural process of recycling organic material such as leaves and vegetable scraps into a rich soil amendment called humus. The EPA lists several key benefits to composting:
- Enriches soil, helps retain moisture, and suppresses plant diseases and pests.
- Reduces the need for chemical fertilizers.
- Encourages the production of beneficial bacteria and fungi that break down organic matter to create humus, a rich nutrient-filled material.
- Reduces methane emissions from landfills and lowers your carbon footprint.
There are many different ways to make a compost pile. WCPL and its branches have several books on composting and there are many detailed composting instructions available online. Watch the WCPL website (wcpltn.org) for information about a program on composting coming in August 2019.
Here are a few composting basics.
- Select a location with good drainage that is easily accessible from your kitchen.
- Choose a partially sunny or shady spot. Too much sun will dry out the pile and total shade may keep it too wet.
- Your compost unit can be as simple as an actual “pile” of materials in your yard, or you can build or purchase more complex composting devices such as various bins and tumblers. You can also compost indoors with worms, using special stacked worm bins. Eww!
Compost is made up of three main ingredients:
- Brown materials, which provide carbon: dead leaves, branches, twigs, bits of cardboard, shredded newspaper, torn-up paper towel and toilet paper rolls, and small bits of cardboard
- Green materials, which provide nitrogen: grass clippings and other yard debris, fresh uncooked vegetable waste, fruit scraps, and coffee grounds
- Water, which provides the moisture required to help break down the materials
Some materials should NOT be added to a compost pile. Avoid:
- Coal or charcoal ash
- Dairy products
- Diseased plants
- Fats, grease, or oils
- Fish or other animal bones
- Pet fecal waste or used cat litter
- Invasive weeds or plants that could root or germinate in the compost
- Any yard debris that has been treated with chemical pesticides
Establishing a Compost Pile
- Begin your pile with equal amounts of browns and greens added in 4-inch layers. You could also just toss them in haphazardly, but the decomposition process will take much longer.
- Water the pile. Keep it moist but do not let it get soggy.
- After the initial setup, add greens and browns as they become available. Cover fruit and vegetable waste with several inches of compost materials.
- Yard debris will decompose more quickly if it is broken into small pieces.
- Stir the pile occasionally with a shovel or pitchfork.
The compost process can take anywhere from three months to two years. Compost is ready when it looks like very dark soil and has a sweet, earthy smell. To test it, put a small amount in a plastic bag. Sniff before sealing. Reopen the bag after a few days. The sample should smell the same as it did before. If it smells worse, your compost needs more time in the pile.
Compost is an amazing amendment to your garden soil and can be applied in several ways. Think of it as food for dirt. Spread it over your lawn to nourish the grass, or mix it into garden soil.
- Give your vegetable garden plenty of compost in the fall. Spread several inches of compost on top of the existing bed, then till it into the soil in the springtime.
- Put a handful of compost in each hole when you’re planting.
- Once plants begin to grow quickly, you can add a half-inch layer of compost around the base of the plants. Provide “heavy feeder” plants such as tomatoes, corn, and squash with 1/2 inch of compost monthly.
- In the spring, loosen the top few inches of annual and perennial beds and mix in a 1-inch layer of compost.
- In the fall, apply a 1-inch layer of compost as a mulch to protect plant roots from freezing and conserve moisture.
- Potted plants and window boxes:
- Nutrients in potting soil may be depleted as plants grow. To replenish them, add an inch of compost to potted plants and window boxes twice a year.
- You can make your own potting soil using two parts screened compost to one part sand or perlite.
- Brew a compost “tea” by steeping compost in water and use it as a foliar spray or a soil drench.
Clearly, composting can be a win-win endeavor. It allows you to cut down on the amount of unused food that otherwise would end up in a landfill. It creates a great, nutritious supplement for your garden. Why not plan to begin a compost pile as your next garden project?
SOURCES AND FURTHER READING: Read the rest of this entry
By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department
Rollo (not the candy) was a leader of a band of Vikings who invaded northern France and settled there in 918 A.D. He was called Rollo the Walker, because he was said to have been too big to ride a horse (either too tall or too fat—it isn’t clear in the sagas). The area he settled, or took over, became the land of the Northmen which over time became the duchy of Normandy. Rollo is significant because he was the three times grandfather of William of Normandy who is known throughout history as William the Conqueror (aka, William the Bastard).
William’s father died when he was eight, and he instantly became the heir. But he had to fight for his birthright since he was considered by most everyone as a bastard. Luckily for William, he was very good at fighting and he won his place as the Duke of Normandy. The English king, Edward the Confessor, had promised William the throne of England upon his death. Perhaps he forgot this fact (or just ignored it) because he also promised the throne to Harold Godwinson (Harold the Saxon) as well. Thus a contest for the throne of England was set. Harold was proclaimed king, and William decided to defend his right to the throne.
By a twist of fate, a Norwegian king, Harald Hardrada (the Ruthless) also decided to take England by force. He wasn’t promised the throne, though; his connection came from Harold Godwinson’s troublesome brother, Tostig (gasp! No nickname?). He brought 300 ships and 11,000 Vikings to take the English throne. They attacked at the north of England and managed to take the city of York. Harold knew that William was going to attack as well but that would be at a different part of England, so what was Harold to do? He decided to defend England against Harald Hardrada and his Vikings even knowing that William was close to sailing to attack from a different coast. It turned out that William was delayed in his conquest of England because he was waiting for good winds to take him across the English Channel. If the winds had turned good earlier, who know what would have happened (now that would be a good alternate history idea).
Harold was successful in defeating the Viking forces at Stamford Bridge, but at great cost. And since the Vikings had attacked England at the north end of the country, the English under Harold Godwinson had to force-march ten miles a day for three weeks to get to the south of England and meet William. They were mostly walking—most of the soldiers didn’t have horses, and given the distance, they made good time. But they were exhausted when they got there, and they had to fight the next day. No day of rest for them. William and his Norman forces won the day; Harold was killed with an arrow through the eye; and history was made. This was effectively the end of the English kings, and the beginning of Norman/French rule. William continued to fight to consolidate his rule of England. He fought other battles in 1068 against Harold Godwinson’s heirs and in 1069 the Danes attacked York, aided by revolting (what they did, not how they looked) English nobles. He scorched the earth so badly after he won it was said that there was famine in the area for nine years.
And why was William conquering England so important?
- The Normans brought French language to England. The rulers and the courts spoke French, and it was the official language of England for centuries. In time it trickled down through the whole country and became closer to the language we know today. The reason we can read Chaucer and other Middle English works is that they are not in Anglo-Saxon.
- Many believe that the Normans won because they used stirrups when they rode to battle. Stirrups hadn’t made it to the island of Britain yet and the Normans were using armored cavalry, 3000 strong! When throwing spears and slashing from horseback, it is far easier to stay in the saddle with stirrups!
- William ordered that a national census be done in 1086; the first census was called the Domesday Book. He wanted to see what he had conquered. It is still extant and can be looked at in the National Archives. It is also available online and as a book.
- Some sources believe that the legend of Robin Hood was actually born during the time of the Norman invasion under William, not under his 4th great grandson John.
- The Norman Invasion brought castles to England. France invented the castle as a way to protect property and dominate the land, and the Normans built many stout and menacing castles in England to control England. Many are still standing today.
- Chivalry came to Great Britain with the Normans. Imagine life without the romance of knights and their ladies; King Arthur would not have been such a great influence without this way of acting and living.
- William banned the English slave trade. He even sometimes freed slaves. Some historians believe that 15% to 20% of the population was enslaved before the Invasion. True, they brought in the feudal system with serfs, who were treated sometimes like slaves. But they couldn’t be sold, except when the land was sold or traded hands.
- William erected an abbey at the spot where Harold died, in remembrance and in penance. Ruins of the abbey are still there, as is a town called Battle. Normans erected other churches, cathedrals as well as castles.
- The Battle of Hastings was recreated on a 230 feet long (and 20 inches wide) tapestry by the women of Bayeux, France (either nuns and/or women in William’s family). It is the longest tapestry in existence. It is known as the Bayeux Tapestry and is quite famous for the battle scenes, which are quite graphic. If it was created by nuns, they knew battle…
- Normans brought surnames to England as well. Anglo-Saxons, similar to the Vikings, had a descriptive surname, like Luke the Fat or Marcus the butcher.
- And finally, for the gross factor: William died in his French capital, Rouen. He confessed his sins and distributed his treasure to the poor and to some of the churches in his realms. It is believed that William was injured by a fall or perhaps from the pommel of his saddle (he was very heavy later in life). In any case, it was an internal injury and swelled badly. The priests had a hard time getting him into his stone sarcophagus, which was a little too short and not big enough for him, and had to push hard. His wounds, having festered, burst from the corpse; it was a very quick burial after that… (ewwww…)
- Still, all kings (and queens) in England after William were descended through him. Some believe over 25% of the English population can trace their genealogy back through him. And may Americans can also count him as an ancestor. Justin Timberlake and Barack Obama are very distant cousins, both having lines back to William!
Further Reading: Read the rest of this entry
By Lance Hickerson, Reference Department
A brother and sister in the county recently decided to get their first library cards at WCPL. Let’s call them Jack and Jill for short. It is not known why they waited so long to get a card, but it turns out that Jill needs a rare and costly book that the library has on the shelf. Using the library for free (that’s right, free) saves Jill from having to buy the book with the equivalent of half her weekly grocery budget.
Soon Jack comes by the library to pick up Jill’s rare book as well the five movies his sister has reserved online from home. Since this is his first time in the library, Jack takes his own tour to see what’s here. He sees a huge collection of childrens’ books, and notices the Launchpads which could occupy his niece for hours. He browses shelves and shelves of entertainment DVDs, locating several older movies that are hard to find. Nearby is the large area holding an extensive fiction collection and Large Print books.
Jack thinks to himself, “Surely, there is more to the library than this,” and he is right. He sees the stairs and heads up to the second floor. Jack uses his card to access the public computers which offer the range of Microsoft Office software as well as photo editing and more. He discovers that there are nonfiction and documentary type DVDs on the second floor and locates two which ignite his interest.
Meanwhile, Jill is thinking about their family dinner party and texts Jack requesting two cookbooks, Rachel Ray’s Look + Cook, and The Best of America’s Test Kitchen Little did Jack know, but the Library has over 50 shelves of cookbooks upstairs, including one entire 27 foot long wall. He finds both books available, with the recipes Jack and Jill both love cooking.
Before leaving, Jack sees the Reference Desk and asks them a question regarding data for his business. Jack makes guitar pedals and wants to be sure he is speaking to every music place within 50 miles. He asks if there is a database that could help him. Jack gets back on the library computer and the librarian takes him through several databases available for library users. Most helpful is Reference USA, which lets him mine and correlate the very information he is seeking.
Jill texts again to remind Jack to schedule time for the winter family trip to Switzerland. This prompts Jack to think how he needs to learn more about his digital camera, while also brushing up on his French and German. To save time, he asks the librarians at the Reference Desk for help. They show him how to take advantage of the several eBook connections through the library, especially READS and R. B. Digital. With his new card, Jack is able to download on his ipad, David Pogue’s Digital Photography: The Missing Manual. The librarian also shows Jack the photography E-magazines available to check out free through the READS and Zinio electronic libraries. Jack downloads immediately Digital Photography from Zinio.
Jack tells the librarian, that if he ever worried the library would go out of business, he doesn’t now. “Are you as up-to-date on language learning? I need to refresh my French and German.” The Reference Desk librarian shows him the library learning site called Transparent Languages, and gets him into the German and French programs using Jack’s library card as the login.
On his way out, with books, DVDs, and electronic downloads in hand, Jack texts Jill, “There’s a lot here at the library. More than I realized. You say you like the newly designed card; I know you’ll like even more, using it. You’ve got to come check this out!”