Monthly Archives: April 2017
By Lance Hickerson, Reference Department
“Today, the average household creates enough data to fill 65 iPhones (32gb) per year. In 2020, this will grow to 318 iPhones.”
This is a conclusion from the seventh EMC Digital Universe study at Hopkinton, Massachusetts highlighting a special concern with how “data is outpacing storage. The world’s amount of available storage capacity (i.e., unused bytes) across all media types is growing slower than the digital universe.”
Concerns about digital storage and preservation are not new, but they are now more pressing. Michael Irving, of New Atlas, explains how “even the best of our current range of devices are only relatively short-term solutions to the problem. Hard drives, and optical storage such as DVDs and Blu-Ray discs, are vulnerable to damage and degradation, with a life expectancy of a few decades at best.” Irving continues:
Scientists are increasingly looking to nature’s hard drive, DNA, as a potential solution to both the capacity and longevity problems. As our own bodies demonstrate, DNA is an incredibly dense storage medium, potentially squeezing in a mind-boggling 5.5 petabits (125,000 GB) of information per cubic millimeter. By that measure, according to University of Washington professor, Luis Ceze, all 700 exabytes of today’s accessible internet would fit into a space the size of a shoebox. You could then tuck that shoebox away in a vault for thousands of years, and the DNA-stored data would remain intact.
Indeed, digital storage modeled on DNA is a promising solution. But until it becomes more than experimental, what should we do in the meantime? For instance, what if you have just been chosen as the archivist for a massive collection of family photographs? How would you choose to store the data? In addition to preserving the actual physical photos, what is the best approach from a digital point of view? After the photos are scanned, what is the best way to store them as digital documents?
A helpful answer comes from Denise May Levenick, who inherited her family photo treasures. She shares tips and techniques for preserving a collection in her latest book, How to Archive Family Photos: A step by step guide to organize and share your photos digitally (Family Tree Books: Cincinatti, 2015. In our library nonfiction section under 745.593 May). It is good to keep in mind that, although focusing on photos, the principles she outlines apply to more than photo collections.
One important decision for digital material concerns negotiating different file formats. Ms. Levenich explains about using JPG and TIFF files.
JPG is a file format that uses compression when saving files and is called a lossy file format because repeated opening and saving of JPG files deteriorates the image quality over time. TIFF is a file format that does not use compression when saving files and is considered a lossless format because it maintains its quality over time.
What this means for preservation is that the TIFF lossless format better maintains the digital data than the JPG format, which loses quality with use. One concern with TIFF files, however, is that TIFF is sometimes unreadable by various programs. In this case, our staff librarian photo buff, Rebecca Tischler, recommends saving picture files in PNG. PNG, pronounced “ping,” stands for the Portable Network Graphics format which compresses information in a lossless manner, meaning all the image information is there when the PNG file is decompressed. Further it neither degrades nor loses information with saving, restoring, or resaving like the JPG. Don’t count out the JPG, however, as it has its uses too, one being the JPG can preserve a lot more color than the PNG.
Once your format is chosen, it is necessary to back up your photo files. Ms. Levenick recommends the 3-2-1 rule.
- 3 Copies
- 2 different media
- 1 copy stored off-site
She explains, “Many different combinations will provide a good backup solution, but the key to a great backup system is to spread out your copies across different media and different storage locations. When hurricanes and tornadoes wipe out a home and family photo collection, it’s reassuring to know that digital copies are safe in the cloud, or stashed at a relative’s home in another state. Don’t wait for a disaster to safeguard your precious family memories. Practice the 3-2-1 Backup rule regularly, especially after a major scanning session.”
- Michael Irving, “New record for storing digital data in DNA” in New Atlas (July 11, 2016)
- Denise May Levenick, How to Archive Family Photos: A step by step guide to organize and share your photos digitally (Family Tree Books: Cincinatti, 2015), pp. 108-109; 126.
- The Data Deluge: An e-Science Perspective, Tony Hey*(Tony.Hey@epsrc.ac.uk) + and Anne Trefethen*(Anne.Trefethen@epsrc.ac.uk),UK e-Science Core Programme
By Rebecca Tischler, Reference Department
Last Month, we had an interactive display upstairs. Patrons could add their ancestry to a world map and see where some of their neighbors came from as well. Some had many ancestries, and some only had one, but it was interesting to see how diverse our patrons were.
And those who didn’t know their background, we pointed them to the Special Collections department, where patrons can get some help doing genealogical research with databases such as Ancestry.com and HeritageQuest. If you want to know more about where your family comes from, ask one of our wonderful Special Collections Librarians for help.
But for now, take a look at all the responses that were left at the display.
- English, Welsh, Polish, German, French, Scandinavian, Scottish
- Greek, English
- Snowbeast (AKA Canadian)
- Tamil, Hindi
- Prussia, Austria, Germany
- Italy, Germany
- Norwegian, German
- African American, German
- German, Prussian, Polish
- English, Welsh, Italian
- Tamil, Hindi
- English, Scottish, Norman French
- French, Great Britain
- Mexican, Spanish
- French, Mexican
- Italy, Germany, Europe
- English, Irish
- German, French, Irish
- Scottish, English, French
- Swedish, German
- Swiss-German, English
- French, Irish
- Polish, English, Irish
- Chinese, Hunan
- Thai, Chinese
- German, Swiss
- Pennsylvania Dutch
- Ireland, Germany
- At this library we found out the Hill family from Texas is the Hill family from ESSEX U.K.!
- Irish, Italian
- Norwegian, Icelandic
- Czech, Dutch, German, English
- Norwegian, French, Polish
- Brazilian, Italian, Irish, English
- Irish, German
- Tartar Kazakhstan
- Swedish, English, Scottish, Irish
- Scottish, Scandinavian, Polynesian, German
- Mexicana Latin of African and Spanish ancestry
- Venezuela, Peru
- Black, Irish, Blackfoot
- Cherokee, English, French, Scottish, Irish, German, Swiss, Nordic
- Spanish, Mexican
- Portuguese, Spanish, Brazilian
- Indian, German, Dutch, English
- Anglo-Irish, German-Polish
- Scottish, Welsh, English
- Spanish, Scottish, French, Polish, Welsh, Irish
- Irish, Cherokee
- Spanish, Italian, Greek, English, Scottish, Irish, Moroccan
- Indian, Irish, German, English
- German, English, Irish, Dutch
- Spanish, Scottish, Irish, English, Danish, German, French, Ecuadorian, Incan
- Ghanaian, Haitian
- German, Irish, Scottish
- English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, French, Swiss German, Cherokee
- Celts, France, Ireland, England/Wales
- French, Scottish, Cherokee
By Lance Hickerson, Reference Department
This year’s theme supplies a good reason: “Libraries Transform.” Over twenty years ago, some were saying libraries would go the way of VHS tapes, floppy disks, and beanie babies. But libraries are still going strong! Again, one big reason is how libraries transform people who visit. Please let me illustrate with a few examples.
One morning as the doors open to WCPL, a very focused patron marched in and went immediately to the computer center where he started searching for jobs. After 20 minutes of what he called, “Nothing,” he asked for help. He explains how he just lost his job and desperately needed to find employment. A librarian responds to his request by leading him to a few of the better job search sites, while at the same time helping him narrow his search. This was so helpful that he found three promising jobs to apply for. But he soon asks for help again, as his computer skills were challenged by the application process. The librarian takes time to help him set up a profile and become familiar with just what the applications are seeking. Upon finishing the applications, the man stops to tell the helpful librarian, “Thanks for being so kind to me and taking time. It restores my belief in human kindness.” This patron continues to come to the library, and will never forget how a librarian took time to help transform his situation.
Several weeks later a library patron approached the reference desk with a request. She had retired from two careers but, in her words, “had missed the computer age.” Her children and grandchildren asked her again and again to learn computers, but she held back. Until today. The patron wanted to “turn over a new leaf” and learn how to use a computer, so as to surprise her children by being able to look up answers online all by herself. The librarian gladly set up a one-on-one time with the patron, during which time, the patron disclosed, “I have to tell you, I have arthritis and trembling so bad that I have trouble using the mouse.” Not to be deterred, the librarian scheduled three months of one-on-one times starting with exercises on using the mouse. Although slow going at first, the patron learned to control and use the mouse, which led to creating her first email account. She learned to make and evaluate online searches as well as how to make lists and write letters in Microsoft Word. Over three months she went from being fully dependent on the librarian to semidependence to joyous independence. She reported how her children were impressed with her “entering the computer age,” but that now she uses the computer just because she enjoys it. The patron and her family were grateful that “libraries transform.”
There are many other stories I wish we could relate about patrons who experience the library as a place for transformation. They would talk about learning new skills like Excel; finding interesting books never before considered; discovering Powerspeak Languages to learn a language for their summer vacation; enjoying their first eBook; seeing a program on square foot gardening that doubled their gardening production; tailoring a resume and cover letter for a new career; finding a dyslexia friendly font; and many other stories. All would tell of how libraries transform and become very personal reasons why we celebrate National Library Week.