Daily Archives: January 15, 2016

The Hunchback of Notre Dame

By Lindsay Roseberry, Reference Department

Hugo-NotreDame_titre_webOn January 15, 1831, Victor Hugo finished one of his famous novels— Notre Dame de Paris. It had taken him only four months, after missing many deadlines set by his publishers. This was his first novel; it was a hit in Paris and France from the very beginning. Hugo had already gained fame because of his poems (he was granted many gifts and a 3000 franc annual pension from King Louis XVIII.) He lived during turbulent times. When he was two, Napoleon became Emperor of France. During his eighteenth year, the Bourbon dynasty was restored and Napoleon overthrown. It is no wonder that The Hunchback of Notre Dame was set in turbulent times. And it also explains the French reaction to the work. The French had all lived through Napoleon and the struggles, not to mention the French Revolution that had occurred within living memory.

Notre Dame de Paris was a huge hit for him—even a sensation. The English translator for Hugo retitled the novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame because at the time of its publication in English, Gothic novels were popular. Thus all the confusion! Hugo titled it as he did because the main character really is the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, not Quasimodo or Esmerelda. Hugo wanted to bring attention to the condition of the famous cathedral—it was badly in need of repairs. It was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-Renaissance buildings, which thereafter began to be actively preserved.

All his adult life, he passionately advocated for an end to the death penalty. He is credited with convincing the British government to spare the lives of six Irish people convicted of terrorist activities, and is also considered in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva, Portugal and Colombia. His archives show that he wrote a letter asking the USA, for the sake of their own reputation in the future, to spare John Brown’s life, but the letter arrived after Brown was executed. What would have happened if the letter had arrived before??

When Napoleon III came to power, Hugo declared him an enemy of the state and moved abroad. He spent fifteen years in exile in Brussels, then Channel Islands. Jersey expelled him soon after arrival, but Guernsey was welcoming. His home in exile is a museum now.

When he returned to Paris in 1870, he was touted as a national hero. He suffered a small stroke, his two sons died and his daughter was committed to an insane asylum, all in a short time period. His wife had died several years earlier; his devoted mistress died two years before him. The whole nation of France celebrated his eightieth birthday. Paris had one of the largest parades ever to celebrate it. For nearly six hours people marched past his window! He was recovering from a small stoke and was not able to leave his bed, but he was propped up so he could watch. He was also given a traditional gift that was only given to kings. Paris even renamed a street after him. Most of the large towns and cities have streets named after victor Hugo. When Hugo died at age 83 from pneumonia, his coffin was laid under the Arc de Triomphe for an all-night vigil. Nearly 2 million people marched in his funeral. He was buried with all honors in a crypt with Alexandre Dumas and Emile Zola.

img_44442On to the novel: On January 6, 1482, during the Feast of Fools, a huge crowd is milling around the Cathedral of Notre Dame, taking part in the celebrations. There is a maypole, a mystery play and a bonfire. Esmerelda, a Gypsy, singing and swaying, catches the eyes of several men: Captain (of the guards) Phoebus, Grigoire, Archdeacon Claude Frollo and Quasimodo. Frollo orders Quasimodo to kidnap Esmerelda, but he is caught by the guards, flogged and put in stocks. Esmerelda gives him water, gaining his undying love. Later, after Esmerelda is charged with Phoebus’ attempted murder, Quasimodo saves her from death by taking her to the sanctuary of the cathedral. But the sanctuary doesn’t last long. She is retaken, and hanged. Frollo laughs during the hanging so Quasimodo throws him off the cathedral. Quasimodo finds Esmerelda’s body in the graveyard and stays there until he dies of starvation.

Hugo introduced the concept of the novel as Epic Theatre in Notre Dame de Paris. This was a giant epic about the history of a whole people, with the figure of the great cathedral as witness and silent protagonist. It was the first novel to have beggars as protagonists. It was also the first work of fiction to encompass the whole of life, from the King of France to Paris sewer rats, in a manner later co-opted by many others authors, including Charles Dickens. The popularity of the book in France also kick started the historical preservation movement in Paris and the rest of the nation and strongly encouraged Gothic revival architecture. Ultimately it led to major renovations at Notre-Dame in the 19th century; much of the cathedral’s present appearance is a result of this renovation. Read the rest of this entry

Advertisements

There’s a Starman Waiting in the Sky: David Bowie 1947 – 2016

By Stephen McClain, Reference DepartmentDavid-Bowie-00s-david-bowie-37030347-900-900

On Sunday evening, January 10, 2016, David Bowie died at the age of 69. After the sudden death of Lemmy Kilmister of Motörhead and the passing of Natalie Cole, the music world has suffered the loss of yet another icon. As modern rock and roll ages as a genre, we will unfortunately see more influential artists disappear in the foreseeable future. Paul McCartney is 73, Robert Plant is 67, Bruce Springsteen is 66, the guys in Iron Maiden are in their late 50s (sans Nicko McBrain who is 63) and they are all still actively creating new music, but performing takes its toll on the body. Artists like these all seem larger than life. Even immortal. Aren’t they supposed to live forever? Anyway… Bowie had just put out a new album entitled “Blackstar,” his 25th studio album. I never realized it until now, but Bowie’s music has been present in my life for a very long time. Around the time I started playing guitar, I used to repeatedly listen to a crackly 45 of “Space Oddity.” (For those under age twenty-five, a 45 is…never mind. Go ask your parents.) I was in 8th grade when “Let’s Dance” and “China Girl” were in the Billboard top ten (yes, I’m that old). I bought the “Best of Bowie” two CD collection many years ago and have done an acoustic version of Ziggy Stardust at a few of my solo gigs. David Bowie had to have known the impact that his music and career had on the entertainment world, but some question whether or not he was aware of his own global reach.

tumblr_n1u1brLndS1qlcugro1_1280David Bowie was born David Robert Jones south of London, England on January 8, 1947. After several unsuccessful bands and musical endeavors in the 1960s, he would begin his solo career with his focus not only on music, but image as well. He changed his name to Bowie to avoid confusion with Davy Jones, the lead singer of the Monkees. The success of “Space Oddity” would drive Bowie’s career in the early 1970s and he would be a pioneer of the genre of “glam” rock. He and guitarist Marc Bolan are credited with inventing the genre. With the creation and huge success of the characters Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars in 1972, Bowie’s status as an influential rock icon was cemented, even if he didn’t record anything else. Coupled with his androgynous appearance and admitted bisexuality, David Bowie was unlike anything at the time. He greatly influenced bands like Mott the Hoople, Roxy Music, Sweet, and the New York Dolls, all known for an androgynous appearance that was directly related to Bowie. But it’s the music that is so important. Much of what he did in the 1970s still sounds fresh today, “The Man Who Sold the World,” “Changes,” “Rebel Rebel,” “Young Americans,” Suffragette City,” and “Heroes,” the first and last songs being covered by Nirvana and the Wallflowers, respectively.

81GaOhfPyFL._SL1300_I could go into great detail about Bowie’s music, image and the impact of his artistic endeavors on the world, but this has been written at length by music writers much better than myself.  To me, what is so significant about the loss of David Bowie is that he was an innovator; one that continued to reinvent himself and remained creative and original until the end.  He was not only a musician; he was also an actor, artist and fashion icon.  In a modern music world where conformity is the rule of the day and artistic development is rare, David Bowie would not have had a chance today.  Bowie’s first records were not huge successes until “Space Oddity.” He began his career in 1962 but didn’t see real success until the early 1970s.  Today, if an artist’s first album is not a blockbuster, he or she is done.  No development.  No second chance.  That’s it.  Without Bowie, there would be no Madonna, Lady Gaga, Marilyn Manson, Alice Cooper, Motley Crue, even Smashing Pumpkins… the list goes on.  Bowie tested limits, broke barriers and invented original, unearthly characters.  At the risk of sounding cynical, how many of today’s top artists will still be making critically acclaimed, innovative music into their 60s?

His new album, “Blackstar,” which was released on his 69th birthday, is a dark record of 7 tracks that still test limits and is already being acknowledged as some of his finest work.  Like George Harrison’s “Brainwashed” and Warren Zevon’s “The Wind,” this is an album written by a man knowing that death would come soon and this would be his final work.  I turned on Palladia Monday evening and they were playing an older VH-1 concert of Bowie. Following the show, they played the video for the new single “Lazarus.”  It’s creepy.  Coupled with the shock of his death, I was not prepared for it. Bowie is in bed, blindfolded by bandages with buttons for eyes and sings, “Look up here, I’m in heaven / I’ve got scars that can’t be seen.”  The other 6 tracks are also introspective, jazzy saxophone coupled with a bit of distorted techno. Chaotic at times. The album closes with a lyrical and musical farewell with the track “I Can’t Give Everything Away.”

david-bowie-blackstar“I know something is very wrong

The pulse returns for prodigal sons

The blackout’s hearts with flowered news

With skull designs upon my shoes”

We all live in an important time regarding popular music.  We are sharing oxygen with artists who were the first of their kind, paved their own way and created music that will last far beyond our time on earth, but I fear that the grab for cash that has consumed the music industry is threatening the further development of music that will last.  So much of what we hear today is lowest common dominator dreck designed to appeal to as many as possible.  Don’t get me wrong, there is good music out there, but it’s not on the surface.  You have to dig. David Bowie’s music and career began at a time when you listened to the radio to know which way the wind blew. Those days are over, but the music lives on. My hope is that there is a kid in a garage or basement somewhere, with an idea or song that will change everything. He or she is out there, I know it. Just like the starman, waiting in the sky. He’d like to come and meet us, but he thinks he’d blow our minds…

Rest in peace, Ziggy.


*Opinions expressed in this blog are solely those of the author and in no way reflect the philosophy or preferences of the Williamson County Public Library, its staff members, their families, friends, or pets.

%d bloggers like this: